Author Topic: Pax 1940  (Read 10746 times)

Offline apophenia

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Pax 1940
« on: September 08, 2014, 10:26:23 AM »
Pax 1940

Between 1936 and 1939, Europe prepared for war. While American industry consolidated its technological lead in commercial aviation, European firms focused on military designs. But, by the Spring of 1940, it was clear that this much-feared 'Second Great War' was not going to happen.

In response to an influx of Lockheed Electras and Douglas DC-2s/DC-3s, European governments made a priority of re-orienting their aviation industries to commercial aircraft production. In early 1940, this mostly consisted of adapting suitable bomber designs to the civilian market. The result was a motely collection of inefficient designs - in Italy, the hold-over Savoia-Marchetti SM.83C; in Germany, the 10-seat He 111Z n.a. adaptation; and in Britain, the Vickers Victoria ... which any cigarette-card collecting boy could recognize as a warmed-over Wellington bomber in sheep's clothing.

There were, of course, a range of relatively successful pre-1940 European commercial aircraft designs. The most impressive were the French Bloch MB.161 and German Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Kurier. The DeHavilland Albatross had prove something of a disappointment. The DH.95 Flamingo was more successful but de Havilland had difficulty producing its metal structure in any great numbers. Clearly, the aviation industry of Europe had its collective work cut out for it.

A range of futuristic airliner designs were moving across European drawing boards but the immediate focus was on translating some of the work put toward modern bomber designs into interim airliners with reasonable performance. Here, we will examine a small cross-section of such designs, beginning with the effort from the Manchester works of A.V. Roe ...
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Offline apophenia

  • Patterns? What patterns?
Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #1 on: September 08, 2014, 10:32:40 AM »
Pax 1940 -- Avro Type 684C Avalon

The Avro Type 684C was originally planned with an extended wing centre-section from the Manchester Mk.II (complete with 2520 hp Bristol Centaurus radials). Delays in Centaurus development led to the first production version being the Avalon Mk.II with twin Bristol Hercules radials.

The Avalon Mk.IIs became the Imperial Airways 'New A Class' -- duly named 'Avon', 'Andromeda', 'Athena', and 'Amalthea'. These aircraft entered service between late Nov 1940 and Aug 1941.

The first Mk.II, 'Avalon' was retained by A.V. Roe as a test airframe. 'Avalon' was rebuilt in the middle of 1941 as the Centaurus-powered prototype Mk.I. By Oct 1941, 'Avalon' would sport the taller tailplanes of the production Avalon MkIA.

The series Avalon Mk.IA was powered, as originally intended, by Centaurus IIB 18-cylinder radials. The Avalon Mk.IA entered Imperial Airways' service in early 1942. These more powerful Avalons were named 'Arethusa', 'Artemis', 'Astraea', 'Atalanta', and 'Aurora'.

A summary of Avro Type 684C Avalon production

Avalon Mk.I -- 'Avalon', 2 x Centaurus IB, one Mk.II conversion

Avalon Mk.IA - 5 x Centaurus IIB-powered aircraft

Avalon Mk.II - 5 x Hercules IV-powerered aircraft, 1 conv. to Mk.I

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NB: The artwork is based on a York sideview by Oliver Beernaert.

_____________________________
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Offline apophenia

  • Patterns? What patterns?
Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #2 on: September 08, 2014, 10:35:55 AM »
Pax 1940 -- Avro Type 686, Type 687, and Type 692

With Avalon production underway, Avro began a major redesign aimed at a longer-range companion. As first proposed, the Avro Type 686 (I) Antaeus was essentially a
4-engined Avalon (albeit with a longer span). When the Hercules engines were dropped in favour of the new Armstrong-Siddeley AS.18N Cougar radials, the Type 686 (II) was renamed Antheus. [1]

While the Type 686 Antheus was intended as an Empire trunkliner, a low-wing type was preferred for European operations. This specification was met with the Type 687 Aeneas. [2] This airliner had wings and powerplants identical to those of the Antheus but adopted a new, tricycle undercarriage arrangement. The Type 687E was a hot weather adaptation for when surplus Aeneas joined the Antheus on the Empire service. The Aeneas, in turn, was eclipsed in Europe by its pressurised descendant, the Type 692 Augustus. [3]
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[1] It being felt that the name Antaeus was too strongly associcated with Hercules.

[2] In mythology, Antheus was a companion of Aeneas (or the surname of Dionysus).

[3] Augustus Caesar (Octavius) said to be descended from the Trojan hero, Aeneas.
_____________________________
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Offline Logan Hartke

  • High priest in the black arts of profiling...
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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #3 on: September 08, 2014, 12:24:47 PM »
Tricycle landing gear?! On a British airliner in 1940?! Heresy! Burn the Yank-o-phile!  ;)

I don't know if you've read this book or not, but I'd highly recommend it. It has a chapter on the subject, written in Gunston's humorous, informative style.



It looks great, though!

Cheers,

Logan

Offline Brian da Basher

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #4 on: September 08, 2014, 08:18:51 PM »
I very much like your Aeneas, apophenia! Looks like it'd have given both the DC-6 and the Constellation a run for their money and is much better looking than either to my eyes!

Brian da Basher

Offline Tophe

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #5 on: September 08, 2014, 11:43:47 PM »
Nice airliners, thanks!

Offline jcf

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #6 on: September 09, 2014, 02:27:08 AM »
Tricycle landing gear?! On a British airliner in 1940?! Heresy! Burn the Yank-o-phile!  ;)


Heresy?, well not really.  ;)

http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,849.msg116962.html#msg116962

Three of the four proposals to specification 15/38 were tricycle geared.


Cool profiles and stories.  :)



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Offline Logan Hartke

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #7 on: September 09, 2014, 03:44:54 AM »
Oh, I know they looked at it, but they were still incredibly reluctant when the US was heading in that direction full steam ahead. You can see that in the UK aviation industry's response to Sir Roy Fedden's 1943 report on the US aviation industry, especially to his pages concerning landing gear. By the way, jcf, have you read that book? If not, I think you'd find it incredibly entertaining.

Cheers,

Logan

Offline Litvyak

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #8 on: September 09, 2014, 06:44:38 AM »
omg the Aeneas is just /gorgeous/!!! Definitely in the should-have-been category!
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Offline apophenia

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #9 on: September 10, 2014, 10:02:14 AM »
Wow! Thanks for the replies folks. The story continues ...
____________________________________________

The Rootes Group enters the aviation business

The Rootes Group invested heavy in the British Government's shadow factory scheme -- including a Blenheim assembly plant at Ryton-on-Dunsmore, near Coventry. As preparations for war wound down, Rootes management considered possibilities of adding the aviation business to their repetory.

In agreement with Bristol Aircraft, plans were made for Rootes to develop a Blenheim-based light airliner. Bristol was concerned with evolving its own Beaufort bomber into a civil aircraft but gave Rootes assistance in the form of construction details from their Type 142 'Britain First' and supplying, from storage, the fuselage from the more advanced Type 143. The Rootes design resembled a mix of those two Bristol types and, like the Type 143, was to be powered by twin 500 hp Aquila radials which Bristol intended to re-introduce in late 1940.

Using Type 149 Blenheim components, the prototype Rootes Type 149C ('Civil') came together quickly. As planned, the Type 149C prototype flew with Bristol Mercury engines but, as a result, was rather overpowered for its anticipated civilian role. Thus, it came as a blow to Rootes when Bristol announced that it was abandoning Aquila production (in favour of focusing on their larger Centaurus 18-cylinder radial).

The planned Aquila-engined Type 149A was, perforce, aborted and the Rootes design staff's attention turned to alternatives. The obvious choice was the similarly-sized Pratt & Whitney Wasp Junior radial. But foreign engine types were thought undesirable for the British and Commonwealth markets.

The available British engine options seemed to be the lower-powered Napier Rapier H-16 and the Armstrong-Siddeley Cheetah radial. The Rapier was not the newest of designs but had a low frontal area. The selection process was complicated by the announcement that  Armstrong-Siddeley had a soon to be available engine design with a similar frontal area. Drawings were worked up for both engine types.
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Offline apophenia

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #10 on: September 10, 2014, 10:04:56 AM »
The Rootes Group's Type 149C Rapier and Type 149T Rocket

As the Napier engine was immediately available, the Rapier was selected to power the first production Type 149C which became known as the Rootes Rapier Mk.IA (or Mk.IAN for 'Napier'). To speed production, standard Blenheim Mk.IV wings and tail units were combined with the new 8-seat fuselage. The twin 395 hp Rapier VIs provided adequate power but these complex engines were not very popular with smaller airlines.

As promised, Armstrong-Siddeley supplied a new horizontally-opposed engine, the AS.6-HO Airedale. This air-cooled flat-6 was derived from AS' multi-bank Deerhound engine. Rootes was provided with pre-production, reverse-cooled Airedales to prove the engine installation. For the production AS.60-HO, conventional airflow was adopted which solved the cooling problems inherited from the Deerhound.

The Type 149T Rocket proved quite successful but Rootes also returned to higher power with an executive aircraft based on the Type 149A. The Type 149O was powered by twin AS.14M Ocelot radials, a fan-cooled design based on Armstrong-Siddeley's licenced Gnome-Rhône 14M Mars two-row radial.

_______________________________________

BTW: These sideviews started life as a Yugoslav Blenheim Mk.I by Ognjan M Petrovic.
« Last Edit: September 10, 2014, 10:08:19 AM by apophenia »
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Offline Tophe

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #11 on: September 10, 2014, 11:58:57 AM »
This grows better and better, thanks!

Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #12 on: September 10, 2014, 01:26:06 PM »
Great work as always, A!

I must ask: where did You found Ognjan Petrovic artwork? I'm from Serbia but I'm having trouble to find it.
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Offline Dr. YoKai

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #13 on: September 11, 2014, 08:41:57 AM »
 Nice stuff so far - I'll look forward to seeing more as it comes.

Offline apophenia

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #14 on: September 13, 2014, 10:17:37 AM »
Thanks folks!

Vuk: I found the Ognjan M. Petrovic artwork on a site advertising a book on Yugoslav Bleheims:
 http://leadenskybooks.com/?contents
http://leadenskybooks.com/css/images/Bristol-Blenheim1.png

As best I can figure out, Petrovic works at the Museum of Aviation, Belgrade (is this the same as the Muzej JRV??)
http://www.muzej.mod.gov.rs/38-opt.pdf
"... blac to gebeddan; bleda gedreosaț, wynna gewitaț, wera geswicaț"

Offline apophenia

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #15 on: September 13, 2014, 10:20:52 AM »
Pax 1940 -- the Armstrong Whitworth AW.46 Argonaut

Like most aircraft manufacturers, Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft began by 'civilianising' its bomber design. Of these adaptations, the 'Civil Whitley' was probably the least impressive. Armstrong Whitney needed a new design and it needed it quickly.

Armstrong Whitworth had reworked its AW.27 Ensign design with an engine swap -- changing the less-than-reliable Tiger radials for new AS.14N Serval radials licenced from Gnome-Rhône. Plans for a further Ensign derivative, the AW.43, collapsed with the failure of the multi-bank Deerhound radial. Design work turned to scaling down that twin-engined Ensign derivative.

Planning quickly settled on the new AS.18N Cougar radial as the most powerful production engine likely to be available from the sister firm, Armstrong Siddeley. Inspired by the failed Gnome-Rhône GR18, the AS.18N was actually a new design mounting 18 AS.14N cylinders on a new crankcase.

The AW.46 Argonaut greatly resembled it larger cousin but also made use of available Whitley components. The Whitley wing was used almost unchanged although it was now high-mounted on the fuselage. New pointed tips were added extending the original Whitley wing span.

Initially, the prototype used three Whitley vertical tailplanes but buffeting from the nacelles made this economy untenable. After several test flights, a new Ensign-inspired tailplane was substituted. The AW.46 Argonaut was submitted to Imperial Airways but they were already committed to Avro designs. Imperial Airways did take six of the tropically adapted AW.46Ms as their 'Assam' class.

It was Aer Lingus that first took the Argonaut into service for their Dublin (Collinstown Airport) to Liverpool route in late 1940. These aircraft were actually AW.46Bs which were fitted with AS.14Nb engines complete with cooling fans. These aircraft flew with Aer Lingus at their 'Iolar Mara' (Sea Eagle) class unil the summer of 1946.

____________________________
"... blac to gebeddan; bleda gedreosaț, wynna gewitaț, wera geswicaț"

Offline Logan Hartke

  • High priest in the black arts of profiling...
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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #16 on: September 13, 2014, 10:33:37 AM »
Vuk: I found the Ognjan M. Petrovic artwork on a site advertising a book on Yugoslav Bleheims:
 http://leadenskybooks.com/?contents
http://leadenskybooks.com/css/images/Bristol-Blenheim1.png

As best I can figure out, Petrovic works at the Museum of Aviation, Belgrade (is this the same as the Muzej JRV??)
http://www.muzej.mod.gov.rs/38-opt.pdf


Indeed, I used one of his Blenheim profiles to help with my Finnish F-15A.

Cheers,

Logan

Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #17 on: September 14, 2014, 04:18:14 AM »
Thanks folks!
...
As best I can figure out, Petrovic works at the Museum of Aviation, Belgrade (is this the same as the Muzej JRV??)
http://www.muzej.mod.gov.rs/38-opt.pdf


Definitely. Museum of Aviation is a new official name, but I think that the old name (Muzej Jugoslovenskog Vazduhoplovstva - Yugoslav Aeronautical Museum) was not be changed. I guess this was done mainly for political reasons. It seems that most people in Serbia, as well in all former Yugoslav republics, are embarrassed by Yugoslav chapter of our common history. I strongly disagree with that point of view.

However, if any of you, guys, ever come to this part of the world, please let me know. The Museum is located next to the Belgrade Inernational Airport and I think it is worth of visit. The beer will be on me  :icon_beer:

http://www.aeronauticalmuseum.com/?jez=eng&id=1
« Last Edit: September 14, 2014, 04:19:58 AM by Vuk »
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Offline apophenia

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #18 on: September 16, 2014, 12:15:38 PM »
Thanks for the clarifications Vuk

With the deadline looming for this GB, its seemed to make sense to hit 'fast forward' on Pax 1940. So, I'll just summarize the situation in Britain and then move on. So, ...

-----------------

Pax 1940 -- Products of the British Aviation Industry

Armstrong Whitworth AW.27S Ensign, 4 x Armstrong Siddley AS.14N Serval radials
Armstrong Whitworth AW.46 Argonaut/Assam, 2 x AS.18N Cougar radials

Avro Type 652C Avatar, 2 x AS.7 Cheetah radials (civil 652A Anson)
Avro Type 661 Ayrshire, 2 x AS.7 Cheetah ('High Cabin Avatar')
Avro Type 662 Anglesey, 2 x AS.14M Ocelot radials ('Metal Avatar')
Avro Type 684C Avalon, 2 x Bristol Hercules IV or Centaurus IIB radials
Avro Type 686 Antheus, 4 x AS.18N Cougar radials
Avro Type 687 Aeneas,* 4 x AS.18N Cougar radials
 - * Replaced projected 'tail dragger' Type 687 Avebury
Avro Type 692 Augustus, 4 x AS.18N Cougar radials

Bristol Type 137C Bute, 2 x Bristol Pegasus XXII (civil Bombay)
Bristol Type 144 Belfast, 2 x Perseus XC (retr. u/c Bute devel.)
Bristol Type 144A Brisbane, 2 x Perseus XICI (hot-high Belfast)
Bristol Type 152C Beaufort (pax/freight conversion on bombers)
Bristol Type 152P Bolway, twin float Type 152C conversion
Bristol Type 161 Brittany, 2 x Taurus ('Beaufort Airliner')
Bristol Type 163 Buckingham, 4 x Centaurus, low-winged airliner

De Havilland DH.100 Demeter, 2 x AS.18N ('Twin Albatross')
De Havilland DH.102 Dove, 2 x Gipsy Prince inverted V8s

Fairey Fleetwing,* 1 x RR Merlin (Battle postal/freight conv.)
 - * NB: No 'Fairey Commercial' designation was applied
Fairey FC.1 Falkirk, 4 x Bristol Taurus, low-winged airliner
Fairey FC.2 Fairlie, 2 x Napier Rapier ('Twin Battle' deriv.)
Fairey FC.3 Flamingo, 2 x Perseus XIIC (DH design, most for RAF)
Fairey FC.4 Fairview, FC.3 deriv (orig. for Gurernsey Airways)

Handey-Page HP.52P Herald (Hampden conv. to postal/freight)
Handey-Page HP.52C Halcyon, 4 x Hercules (Halifax deriv.)

Vickers Type 289P Vallay (freight conv. of ex-RAF Wellesley)
Vickers Type 299C Victoria (civilianised Wellington Mk.III)
Vickers Type 420 Viceroy, 2 x Hercules (Victoria deriv.)
Vickers Type 429 Virago (tricycle u/c deriv. of Viceroy)

--------

Pax 1940 - Executive derivatives of fighter designs

Boulton Paul Postman (Defiant Mk.I conv. to post carrier)
Boulton Paul Boudicca, 1 x AS.6 Terrier II (RAF Balliol)
Boulton Paul Bittern, 1 x Terrier (4-seat Boudicca deriv.)
Boulton Paul Bobolink ('Economy Bittern', abandoned)
Boulton Paul Bullet, 2 x AS.6 Terriers (5-seater)

Hawker Hurrier, 1 x Napier Dagger (4-seater)

Supermarine Supernal, 1 x DH Gipsy 12 (RAF Student deriv.)

-----------------
"... blac to gebeddan; bleda gedreosaț, wynna gewitaț, wera geswicaț"

Offline apophenia

  • Patterns? What patterns?
Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #19 on: September 16, 2014, 12:17:22 PM »
Pax 1940 - Junkers Ju 152/2m airliners

In 1939-1940, the Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG found itself without a modern airliner available. The advanced Ju 252 design had been begun for Lufthansa in 1938 but would not be ready for flight before the middle of 1941, As an ad hoc solution, Junkers turned to modernizing their Ju 52/3m design.

The resulting Ju 152/2m* was powered by twin Bramo 323P-2 radials (a streamlined nose cone taking the place of Tante Ju's third engine). The main landing gear legs were also mode retractible as another nod to modernity.

Top: D-AUDE 'Rudolf Berthold', the second Lufthansa aircraft named after Oblt Berthold, a Great War ace. Lufthansa regarded D-AUDE as a replacement for Ju 52/3m, D-AJAN, which had been impressed by the Luftwaffe in 1939. Most of the 'A Series Ju 152/2ms were production-line conversions of Ju 52/3mg6e models being constructed for the Luftwaffe.

Bottom: SE-AOF 'Örnen' ('Eagle') of AB Aerotransport (ABA) flying the Stockholm-Malmö-London route. This aircraft was assembled at Limhamns by Junkers subsidiary, AB Flygindustri (AFI). The 'B series Ju 152/2m introduced a refined cockpit among other detail changes.

_______________________________

* The RLM had originally assigned the 8-152 designation to Klemm. When the Kl 152 light fighter project was abandoned, Junkers was able to apply to have a designation re-assigned.
_______________________________
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Offline GTX_Admin

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #20 on: September 16, 2014, 10:20:49 PM »
Love those last ones!
All hail the God of Frustration!!!

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Offline Brian da Basher

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #21 on: September 18, 2014, 03:26:42 AM »
Love those last ones!

I most emphatically agree! Sheer genius starting with a Ju-52 and finishing with a German version of the Boeing 247!

You have incredibly enviable and rare talent, aphophenia!

Brian da Basher

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #22 on: September 18, 2014, 08:58:41 AM »
I have a civilian passenger He111Z planned that would go nicely in this scenario.
All hail the God of Frustration!!!

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Offline apophenia

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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #23 on: September 19, 2014, 09:39:27 AM »
Thanks folks! Greg: I'd love to see that He 111Z! I've got an He 111 derivative coming (if time permits).
______________________________________

Pax 1940 - Junkers Ju 88 Airliner Derivatives


While Lufthansa introduced the Ju 152/2m, Junkers turned its attention to the airline potential for its successful Ju 88A bomber. The Ju 88Z was a fast mail carrier conversion of the Ju 88A-1 (for Reichspost service) but a 'prestige airliner derived from the Ju 88 airframe was also planned. This was the Ju 388.*

The Ju 388 v1 flew in late 1939 powered by Bramo 323 Fafnir radials. But the intended powerplant was the Jumo 230A and the prototype was re-engined with this flat-6 diesel** once it was available. The Ju 388 had a small passanger capacity and engines that were somewhat smoky and low-powered. This combination made the type less than desirable to Lufthansa and most Ju 388s were used on diplomatic flights within Europe.

The Ju 488 was a long-range aircraft with four Jumo 230As. The outer wing panels were almost identical to those of the Ju 388 but the 488 featured an extended centre section. All four nacelles carried both engines and a main undercarriage leg. The fuselage was of entirely new design and seated 32 passengers.

The new fuselage of the Ju 488 was also used on a new, shorter-range development - the Ju 588. Of necessity, the Ju 588A used the same Jumo 211A engines as the Ju 88 bomber. The 'B series Ju 588 introduced the Bramo 300C Drache, a 2-row 18-cylinder radial.

____________________


* The Ju 188 was another Schnellbomber (essentially a Ju 88A-4 fitted with Bramo 300B Drache radial engines). The abandoned Ju 288 was being developed for the 'Bomber B' program which the Luftwaffe cancelled in late 1940.

** The Jumo 230 series was a 'flat' development of the Jumo 205. With their offset propellor shafts, these engines were 'handed'. The Ju 388 was powered by Jumo 230A-1S and 'H engines (for Steuerbord and Hafen).
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Re: Pax 1940
« Reply #24 on: September 23, 2014, 06:57:47 AM »
Oh yeah!
All hail the God of Frustration!!!

You can't outrun Death forever.
But you can make the Bastard work for it.