Author Topic: Cold War turned hot in the 80s  (Read 11572 times)

Offline Glanini

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Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« on: December 01, 2012, 10:34:36 PM »
I finally made it after seven years of frequently interrupted work, I have completed my timeline and profiles for this subject. Before start reading please advise that my timeline turns from actual events and then changing some key events make them "What If"

I hope you will enjoy and it will be a long trip since the timeline is 115 pages in MS Word font 11.

The Timeline is divided by year and each year by Subject

  • Central Front/ Europe

    Middle East

    Central America

    Southern America

    Southern Africa

    Afghanistan

    Iran-Iraq

    Far East/Oceania

    Mediterrean /North Africa

    Northern Ireland

    News (a general News Section)


Profiles of Airplane involved will follow as well in the profile section


Prologue

The Seventies has been a very critical decade for the world. The economy has been in recession caused by fuel crisis and terrorism has been a bad seed left from the sixties rebellion.
The United States have been affected by an economic crisis and President Carter approval rate is very low and they have lost the first war in their history in Viet Nam. The subsequent Vietnamization of the war has forced the Unites States to pump 3 billion of US dollars yearly to support the South Vietnamese army. Anyway in 1978 with Democrats in charge the House and Senate have ruled to reduce the aid to 1 billion only going to zero 1979.
In Asia China is trying to establish itself as the major force of the area, trying to take that role from USSR that is still the major supporter of North Viet Nam. The latter is still trying to recover from the failed assault to South Viet Nam in 1975.  South Vietnamese army is one of the better equipped in the world thank to United States aid but start lacking fuel due to the increased oil prices and reduced US support.
Europe has been affected by communist terrorism secretly supported by KGB and Stasi. In Italy and Germany Red Brigades and RAF have been killing major figures of the establishment and NATO officers as well,  while France is affected by a major moral crisis due to the corrupt leadership of his President and the connection with fearsome African Leaders. United Kingdom is affected by a major economic recession with the Northern Ireland Troubles requesting a big support from the army. In Greece, Spain and Portugal democratic movements took the power after decades of military and right wing regimes.
In eastern Europe signs of unease for the ecomonic situation of Warsaw Pact Nations are strong especially in Poland, where the 1st Polish Pope visit in 1978 has fueled the unrest. In German Democratic Republic the control of STASI over public life is very strict. USSR economy is in depression with more than 25% of GDP dedicated to military expenditures and local oligarchies in the small eastern Republics brings a big deal of corruption.
In 1977 the world goes very close to a Nuclear War, a NATO exercise called “Able Archer 1977” is mistaken by some USSR analysts as actual US Nuclear attack. USSR started preparing to send ICBM over western Europe, until a Soviet officer understands that it was just an exercise and stops the Soviet Counter-Attack. After that Breznev and Carter decides to dismantle their nuclear arsenal by mid eighties.
Middle East is a very critical area, with a major Civil War in Lebanon in the second part of the decade, even though the two major players in the area, Israel and Egypt have signed a peace deal. In Iran the power of the Reza Phalavi family is in dire straits due to the corruption of the regime and the health issues of the Shah. Iraq is becoming a major regional power thanks to the oil price increase and is pursuing its own nuclear program called “Ozirak”.
South America is ruled by military and fascist dictatorship that tries to cover the economic crisis with nationalism and militarism, except for Chile, where the Tanquetazo military coup of 1973 was stopped when CIA withdraws its support. The Argentina military junta has defeated the communist insurgents and is setting his sights toward Chile’s Terra de Fuego.
In Central America, Cuba is pushing the revolution into Nicaragua and El Salvador, both ruled by cruel dictators supported by the United States. In Mexico, PRI party that is ruling the country since 1914 is looking at alternative solution to keep the power beside weak United States support and start secret discussions with Cuba.
In Africa, Libya has become a major player in Mediterrean and Sub Saharian Africa, with Gaddafi trying to influence politics in Chad and Sudan as well. In Central and Southern Africa Cuba is trying to export revolution through military aides and troops and has been key to the Ethiopian victories in the beginning of the Ogaden War with Somalia. Civil war is going on in Angola and Mozambique where rebel factions are supported  by South African and Rhodesian regimes. Rhodesia itself is facing a lot of international pressure to release its segregationist policies.

1978

News


April 10, 1978: News- Volkswagen becomes the second (after Rolls-Royce) non-American automobile manufacturer to open a plant in the United States, commencing production of the Rabbit, the North American version of the Volkswagen Golf, at the Volkswagen Westmoreland Assembly Plant near New Stanton, Pennsylvania with a unionized (UAW) workforce.

May 18, 1978: News- Sarajevo is selected to host the 1984 Winter Olympics and Los Angeles is selected to host the 1984 Summer Olympics.

June 1, 1978: News- The 1978 FIFA World Cup starts in Argentina.

June 15, 1978: News- King Hussein of Jordan marries 26-year-old US Citizen Lisa Halaby, who takes the name Queen Noor.

June 25, 1978: News- Argentina defeats the Netherlands 3–1 after extra time to win the 1978 FIFA World Cup. It is a big triumph for the Regime.

August 6, 1978: News-Pope Paul VI dies in Castelgandolfo at 81.

August 26, 1978: News- Pope John Paul I succeeds Pope Paul VI as the 263rd Pope.

September 28, 1978: News- Pope John Paul I dies after only 33 days of papacy.

October 16, 1978: News-  Pope John Paul II succeeds Pope John Paul I as the 264th pope. He is the first Polish pope in history.


Central Front/Europe

January 12, 1978: Central Front/Europe- CIA is able to obtain a PCUS memorandum that depicts the Soviet economy in crisis. Its growth rate for 1977 having been around 1-2 percent per year, down from over 5 percent in the 1960s. The Soviet economy is burdened by military spending. Investment is bureaucratic rather than interested in new ideas. People still lived in cramped housing and are seeing little material progress for themselves. Cynicism is high and alcoholism prevalent. People are taking little pride in their work. The massive effort in education is producing people with talent that will go unused. On foreign policy there is a mounting concern from the position of the Italian Communist Party (PCI) that is leaning toward a Social Democrat Party even though still financed by PCUS

March 16, 1978: Central Front/Europe- Former Italian Premier and Leader of Majority Party Democratic Christian Aldo Moro, that was on his way to form a government with Partito Comunista Italiano external support is kidnapped by the Red Brigades; five bodyguards are killed. The Red Brigades were supported in the action by Stasi agents under cover.

April 14, 1978: Central Front/Europe- 1978 Tbilisi Demonstrations: Thousands of Georgians demonstrate against an attempt by Soviet authorities to change the constitutional status of the Georgian language.

March 16, 1978: Central Front/Europe-  In Rome, the corpse of Aldo Moro is found in a red Renault 4, after the Italian Government refused to trade him for jailed terrorists.

September 7, 1978: Central Front/Europe- In London, England, a poison-filled pellet, supposedly injected using an umbrella, poisons Bulgarian writer and defector Georgi Markov, on orders of Bulgarian intelligence; he dies 4 days later.

October 16, 1978: Central Front/Europe- First flight of the Panavia Tornado PA100, the single seater fighter version of the attack plane. The prototype is taken in flight by Luftwaffe.

December 27, 1978: Central Front/Europe-  The Constitution of Spain is approved in a referendum, officially ending forty years of military dictatorship.



Offline elmayerle

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Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #1 on: December 02, 2012, 07:35:07 AM »
A nice blend of reality and initially small changes.  'Twill be most interesting to see the ripple effects of those changes as time progresses.

Offline Glanini

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Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #2 on: December 02, 2012, 04:08:15 PM »
Middle East

February 18, 1978: Middle East- Youssef Sebai, editor of a prominent Egyptian newspaper and a friend of the Egyptian President, Anwar Sadat, is assassinated by two gunmen at a convention being held at the Nicosia Hilton. The two assassins rounded up sixteen Arab convention delegates as hostages (among them, two P.L.O. representatives and one Egyptian national) and demand transportation to Larnaca International Airport

February 19, 1978: Middle East- Egyptian raid on Larnaca International Airport. Egyptian forces and the Cypriot National Guard exchang heavy gunfire for nearly an hour in sporadic fighting on the open tarmac. Following the assault, it emerges that the surrender of the two hostage-takers have already been secured at the time of the failed Egyptian attack, and the two men are taken prisoner by the Cypriots and later extradited to Egypt.

March 11, 1978: Middle East- Coastal Road Massacre: eleven Fatah members led by the eighteen-year old female Dalal Mughrabi travel from Lebanon and kill an American tourist on the beach. They then hijack a bus on the coastal road near Haifa, and en route to Tel Aviv commandeer a second bus. After a lengthy chase and shootout, thirtyseven Israelis were killed and seventysix wounded.

March 14, 1978: Middle East- Operation Litani: Israel launch Operation Litani, occupying the area south of the Litani River, excepting Tyre, with over 25,000 soldiers. Its stated goals are to push Palestinian militant groups, particularly the PLO, away from the border with Israel, and to bolster Israel's ally at the time, the South Lebanon Army because of the attacks against Lebanese Christians and Jews and because of the relentless shelling into Northern Israel.

March 19, 1978: Middle East- Operation Litani: In response to the invasion, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 425 and Resolution 426 calling for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon. The UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) is created to enforce this mandate.

March 21, 1978: Middle East- Operation Litani: After a seven-day offensive, the Israeli Defence Forces first capture a belt of land approximately 10 kilometres deep, but later expande north to the Litani river. The IDF do not succeed in engaging large numbers of PLO forces who retreate to the north.

March 23, 1978: Middle East- Operation Litani: UNIFIL forces arrive in Lebanon, setting up headquarters in Naqoura. Resolution 425 don't result in an immediate end to hositilies. The Israelis continue military operations for two more days until they order a ceasefire. The PLO's initial reaction is that the resolution don't apply to them because it didn't mention the PLO.

March 28, 1978: Middle East- Operation Litani:  The PLO leadership finally ordered a ceasefire, after a meeting between UNIFIL commander General Emmanual Erskine and Yasser Arafat in Beirut.

April 19, 1978: Middle East- Operation Litani: the SLA (South Lebanese Army) shells UNIFIL headquarters, killing eight UN soldiers.

June 13, 1978: Middle East- Phalangist soldiers surround the home of a rival Christian faction, Tony Frangieh and kills him, together with his wife, daughter, theit bodyguards and servants and even the family pets.

September 5, 1978: Middle East- Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat begin the peace process at Camp David, Maryland.

September 17, 1978: Middle East- The Camp David Accords are signed between Israel and Egypt. They included: A Framework for Peace in the Middle East and A Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel.

October 27, 1978: Middle East- Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin win the Nobel Peace Prize for their progress toward achieving a Middle East accord.

Central America

January 10, 1978: Central America- Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal, a critic of the Nicaraguan government, is assassinated in Managua. Riots erupt against Somoza's government.

January 23, 1978: Central America- A nationwide strike begin in Nicaragua, with the intention of unseating the dictatorship. It is heavily suppressed by the National Guard but succeed in paralysing both private industry and government services for about ten days.

April 18, 1978: Central America- The U.S. Senate votes 68–32 to turn the Panama Canal over to Panamanian control on December 31, 1999.

October 22, 1978: Central America- In Nicaragua tewntyfive members of the Third Way, led by Edén Pastora Gómez, also known as Commandante Cero, succeeded in capturing the National Palace and holding almost two thousand government officials and members of congress hostage. A negotiated settlement is reached after two days, through the mediation of Archbishop Obando y Bravo and the Panamanian and Costa Rican ambassadors, which requires the government to pay the guerrillas $500,000 U.S., release sixty FSLN members from prison, disseminate an FSLN declaration in the news media, and give the raiders safe passage to Panama and Venezuela.

November, 1978: Central America- The Organisation of American States' (OAS) Inter-American Commission on Human Rights published a report charging the National Guard with numerous human rights violations. The report was followed by a United Nations declaration condemning the Nicaraguan government.

November 24, 1978: Central America- President Carter has cut supplies to Nicaragua's dictator, Somoza (President Anastasio Somoza Debayle). Venezuela and Cuba are aiding Nicaragua's rebels, the Sandinistas. The U.S. is seeking a democratic alternative in Nicaragua and has proposed a nationwide plebiscite to decide whether Somoza should stay in power.


Southern America

January 25, 1978: South America- Argentina rejects the decision which awarded the Picton, Nueva and Lennox islands to Chile and attempts to militarily coerce Chile into negotiating a division of the islands that would produce a maritime boundary consistent with Argentine claims.

March 21, 1978: South America- the Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro make a four-week state visit to Chile, alarming Western observers worried about the Chilean Way to Socialism yielding to Cuban Socialism, i.e. a dictatorial single-party state.

May-June, 1978: South America- In Chile, the economics minister Pedro Vuskovic adopts monetary policies that increase the amount of circulating currency and devalue the escudo, which increase inflation to 140 percent in 1978 and engender a black market economy. The Allende Government acts against the black market with organised distribution of basic products.

September-October, 1978: South America- Chile suffers the first of many strikes. Among the participants are small-scale businessmen, some professional unions, and student groups. Its leaders expect to depose the elected government. Other than damaging the national economy, the principal effect of the twenty-four-day strike is drawing Army head, Gen. Carlos Prats, into the government as Interior Minister, an appeasement to the right wing.

October 18, 1978: South America- Jonestown incident: In Guyana, Jim Jones leads his Peoples Temple cult in a mass murder-suicide that claims 918 lives in all, 909 of them at Jonestown itself, including over 270 children. Congressman Leo J. Ryan is assassinated by members of Peoples Temple shortly beforehand.

October 30, 1978: South America- Argentina finalizes his plan for “Operacion Soverania” a military invasion of Chile, triggered by the Beagle Channel issue. The junta presents the plan to the US Ambassador that after consultation with Washington warns Buenos Aires not to proceed with the plan due to the military imbalance with Chile.

December 3, 1978: South America- Argentina solicits a Peruvian attack in Chile's north, but Peru rejects this demand and orders only a partial mobilization.

December 30, 1978: South America- Argentina’s fleet leaves the shore to start “Operacion Soverania” There is no surprise factor, since the Chilean military keep movements of the Argentine fleet under surveillance and monitor the buildup of Argentine troops. Chilean troops are deployed along the border, ready to meet any invaders.

Southern Africa

February 19, 1978 : Southern Africa- Four hundred fifty ZANLA militants cross the Mozambique border and attack the town of Umtali in Rhodesia.

February 25, 1978 : Southern Africa- In retaliation for Umtali attack the Rhodesian Air Force bomb guerrilla camps 125 miles inside Mozambique, using 'fatigued' Canberra B2 aircraft and Hawker Hunters — actively, but clandestinely, supported by several of the more capable Canberra B(I)12 aircraft of the South African Air Force.

March,  1978: Southern Africa- a meeting take place between Algerian and Angolese officials and militants of the Front for the National Liberation of the Congo. Zairian intelligence is made aware of a possible destabilisation operation in the Shaba region, which has a high value because of its mines of copper, cobalt, uranium and radium. For some months the Soviet Union has been purchasing all the cobalt available on the free market, but western intelligence did not connect this to the upcoming crisis.

March 3, 1978 : Southern Africa- Encamped beneath the path of ascent towards Salisbury from Kariba Airport, the ZIPRA cadres down Air Rhodesia Flight 825 killing nine survivors.

April,  1978: Southern Africa- The FNLC operation is to be headed by Nathaniel Mbumba, with assistance from Cubans and East German officers.

April 4, 1978 : Southern Africa- In retaliation for the shooting down of Flight 825 in September 1978, Rhodesian Air Force Canberra bombers, Hunter fighter-bombers and helicopter gunships attack the ZIPRA guerrilla base at Westlands farm near Lusaka, warning Zambian forces by radio not to interfere.

May, 1978 : Southern Africa- An uprising take place in Karanga, Zaire against dictator Mobutu.

May 4, 1978 : Southern Africa- Battle of Cassinga occurs in southern Angola. A South African airborne attack on a South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) refugee camp and military base at the former town of Cassinga.

May 11, 1978: Southern Africa-  a 3,000 to 4,000 man strong Katangan rebel group arrives, accompanied by the 2nd Cuban Division; departing from Angola, it has crossed neutral Zambia. Upon arriving, they take about 3,000 Europeans as hostages.

May 12, 1978: Southern Africa- In Zaire, 2’000 rebels occupy the city of Kolwezi, the mining centre of the province of Shaba.

May 15, 1978: Southern Africa- - hundreds of rebels start departing the city in stolen vehicles, leaving merely five hundred men led by Cubans. Most are garrisoned in the quarter of Manika and in the suburbs.

May 17, 1978: Southern Africa- Dictator Mobutu requests foreign assistance from Belgium, France and the USA.

May 18-19, 1978: Southern Africa-  Belgian and French paratroopers fly to Zaire to aid the fight against the rebels that start to execute hostages after the intervention of Zairian paratroopers. Between 90 to 280 Europeans are killed.

May 20-21, 1978: Southern Africa- French Foreign Legion paratroopers land in Kolwezi, Zaire, to rescue Europeans in the middle of a civil war.

May 22, 1978: Southern Africa- Mobutu arrived in person to boost troop morale and reassure the population; he seized the opportunity to parade several European corpses. This struck western public opinion and led to a widespread acceptance of the decision by the Elysée to launch a parachute operation.

June-August 1978: Southern Africa-  A number of joint-force bomber raids on guerrilla encampments and assembly areas in Mozambique and Zambia are mounted in yhe summer of 1978, and extensive air reconnaissance and surveillance of guerrilla encampments and logistical build-up is carried out by the South African Air Force on behalf of the RhAF.
« Last Edit: December 02, 2012, 04:12:10 PM by Glanini »

Offline Glanini

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Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #3 on: December 04, 2012, 02:10:01 AM »
Afghanistan

April 27, 1978: Afghanistan- At the funeral of a prominent, murdered leftist, Mir Akbar Khyber, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 listen to speeches by Nur Muhammad Taraki, Hafizullah Amin and Babrak Karmal -- members of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan. President Daoud is alarmed by the gathering and orders the arrest of Communist leaders.

April 26-28, 1978: Afghanistan- Claiming an anti-Islamic coup has begun, President Daoud has mobilized his military. He has put Taraki arrested and Amin put under house arrest. Karmal has escaped to the Soviet Union. Using his family as messengers, Amin orders an uprising against Daoud. Rebel soldiers win against troops loyal to Daoud. At the presidential palace, Daoud and most of his family are assassinated.

April 30, 1978: Afghanistan- The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan is proclaimed, under pro-communist leader Nur Mohammed Taraki.

December 5, 1978: Afghanistan- After two days of talks in Moscow, Taraki of Afghanistan and Brezhnev of the Soviet Union sign a treaty that commits their countries to 20 years of friendship and cooperation. Article 4 of the the treaty allows for Soviet intervention to protect Afghanistan from an armed invasion.


Iran- Iraq

May 15, 1978: Iran-Iraq- Students of the University of Tehran riot in Tabriz to request more freedom of speech; the army stops the riot.

June 1, 1978: Iran-Iraq- Four Iranian Air Force helicopters Boeing CH47 Chinook stray into Soviet airspace and are shot down by VVS MiG25.

September 8, 1978: Iran-Iraq-  The Shah sends troops, helicopter gunships and tanks against crowds of protesters in Teheran. Barricades rise around the city. People arm themselves with Molotov cocktails. The day is to be known by opponents of the Shah as Black Friday.

October 6, 1978: Iran-Iraq-  From Iraq the exiled Ayatollah Khomeini has been urging actions against the Shah, including work stoppages that have swept Iran. The Shah has asked Iraq's acting president, Saddam Hussein, to expel Khomeini. Saddam has accused Khomeini, a Shia, of fomenting rebellion in Iraq. Syria allows Khomeini refuge but Khomeini heads for France. From France Khomeini will urge rebellion against the Shah and also rebellion in Iraq.

November 5, 1978: Iran-Iraq- Rioters sack the British Embassy in Tehran.

December 11, 1978: Iran-Iraq- The demonstration against the regime in Iran increases as two million demonstrate against the Shah.


Far East/Oceania

January, 1978 : Far East-  North Vietnam recaptures the territory it lost to South Vietnam during the previous dry season. After two clashes that left fiftyfive South Vietnamese soldiers dead.

January 4, 1978 : Far East-  South Vietnamese President Thieu announces that the war has restarted and that the Paris Peace Accord is no longer in effect.

March 18, 1978 : Far East-  Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Prime Minister of Pakistan, is sentenced to death by hanging for ordering the assassination of a political opponent.

June-December, 1984: Far East-  AS CVN-71 Theodore Roosevelt enter service with US Navy, RAN receives former CVN-59 Forrestal that is renamed H.M.A.S. Melbourne and equipped with F4J Phantoms.

September 16, 1978 : Far East- General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq officially assumes the post of President of Pakistan.

October, 1978 : Far East- North Vietnam decide to hold a limited offensive from Cambodia into Phuoc Long Province. The strike is designed to solve local logistical problems, gauge the reaction of South Vietnamese forces, and determine whether United States would return to the fray.

December 13, 1978 : Far East- North Vietnamese forces attack Route 14 in Phuoc Long Province.

December 22, 1978 : Far East- The pivotal Third Plenum of the 11th National Congress of the Communist Party of China is held in Beijing, with Deng Xiaoping reversing Mao-era policies to pursue a program for Chinese economic reform.


Mediterrean / North Africa

January 22, 1978: Mediterrean / North Africa- In Chad a Fundamental Charter is signed, following which a National Union Government will be formed on 29 August with Habré as Prime Minister and Malloum as President. The Malloum-Habré accord is actively promoted by Sudan and Saudi Arabia, both of which fear a radical Chad controlled by Gaddafi and see in Habré, with his good Muslim and anti-colonialialist credentials, the only chance to thwart Gaddafi's plans.

January 22, 1978: Mediterrean / North Africa- In Chad Goukouni's FAP, an opposition force supported by Libya, unleashes the Ibrahim Abatcha offensive against the last outposts held by the government in northern Chad, namely Faya-Largeau, Fada and Ounianga Kebir. The attacks are successful, and Goukouni and the Libyans assume control of the BET Prefecture.

February 18, 1978: Mediterrean / North Africa- The French Air Force deploye SEPECAT Jaguar jets to Mauritania under the orders of President Valery Giscard d'Estaing, which repeatedly bomb Polisario columns headed for Mauritania with napalm.

February 18, 1978: Mediterrean / North Africa- The city of Faya-Largeau, defended by 5,000 Chadian soldiers, fall after sharp fighting to 2,500 rebels, supported by possibly as many as 4,000 Libyan troops.

February 20, 1978: Mediterrean / North Africa- French President Giscard D’Estaign gives the go-ahead  to Opération Tacaud, that by April brought in Chad 2,500 troops to secure the capital from the rebels.

March 27, 1978: Mediterrean / North Africa- The Benghazi Accord, which recognizes Goukouni’s FROLINAT and agreed on a new ceasefire is signed. Among the chief conditions of the agreement is creation of a joint Libya–Niger military committee, that is tasked with implementing the agreement; through this committee, Chad legitimizes Libyan intervention in its territory. The accord also containes another condition dear to Libya, as it asks for the termination of all French military presence in Chad.

April 15, 1978: Mediterrean / North Africa- Goukouni left Faya, leaving there a Libyan garrison of 800 men. Relying on Libyan armor and airpower, Goukouni's forces conquer a small FAT (Forceè Armee Tchadienne) garrison and point towards the capital N'Djamena.

May 19, 1978: Mediterrean / North Africa- The decisive battle between Chadian government troops and FROLINAT take place at Ati, a town 270 miles northeast of N'Djamena. The town's garrison of 1,500 soldiers is attacked by the FROLINAT insurgents, equipped with artillery and modern weapons. The garrison is relieved by the arrival, supported by armor, of a Chadian task force and, more importantly, of the Foreign Legion and the 3rd Regiment of Marine Infantry; in a two-day battle, the FROLINAT is repelled with heavy losses.

June 6, 1978 : Mediterrean / North Africa- Major engagement at Djedaa, after which the FROLINAT admitt defeat and flees north, after having lost 2,000 men and left the "ultramodern equipment" they carry on the ground. Of key importance in these battles is the complete air superiority the French could count on, as the Libyan Air Force pilots refuse to fight the French.

July 26, 1978 : Mediterrean / North Africa- The Polisario Front launches a raid on the Mauritania capital Nouakchott, during which Polisario leader El Ouali is killed, and is replaced by Mohamed Abdelaziz, with no letup in the pace of attacks.

August 26, 1978 : Mediterrean / North Africa- Ahmat Acyl, leader of the Volcan Army abranch of FROLINAT, attacks Faya-Largeau with the support of Libyan troops in what is apparently an attempt by Gaddafi to remove Goukouni from the leadership of the FROLINAT, replacing him with Acyl. The attempt backfires, as Goukouni reacts by expelling all Libyan military advisors present in Chad, and starts searching for a compromise with France.

November, 1978 : Mediterrean / North Africa- In Mauritania, under continued pressure, the Daddah regime finally fall to a coup d'état led by war-weary military officers, who immediately agree to a cease fire with the Polisario.


Sub Saharian Africa

February  11, 1978: Sub Saharian Africa- Somalia mobilizes its troops, due to an apparent Ethiopian attack. The expected Ethiopian-Cuban attack; however, it is accompanied by a second attack that the Somalis were not expecting. A column of Ethiopian and Cuban troops cross northeast into the highlands between Jijiga and the border with Somalia, bypassing the SNA-WSLF force defending the Marda Pass.

February  13, 1978: Sub Saharian Africa-Cuban-Ethiopian troops are  able to assault from two directions in a "pincer" action, allowing the re-capture of Jijiga while killing 3,000 defenders.

February  14-28, 1978: Sub Saharian Africa-The Somali defense collapse and every major Ethiopian town is recaptured.

March 3, 1978: Sub Saharian Africa-Ethiopia admits that its troops are fighting with the aid of Cuban soldiers against Somalian troops in Ogaden.

March 9, 1978: Sub Saharian Africa-Recognizing that his position is untenable, Siad Barre ordered the SNA to retreat back into Somalia, although some Somalis have already withdrawn its heavy weapons.

March 15, 1978: Sub Saharian Africa-The last significant Somali unit left Ethiopia, marking the end of the war.

April 9, 1978: Sub Saharian Africa- Somali military officers stage an unsuccessful coup against the government of Siad Barre; security forces thwart the attempt within hours, and several conspirators are arrested.

May 12-13, 1978: Sub Saharian Africa-  A group of mercenaries lead by Bob Denard oust Ali Soilih in the Comoros; ten local soldiers are killed. Denard forms a new government.

June 30, 1978: Sub Saharian Africa-  Ethiopia begins a massive offensive in Eritrea.

October 14, 1978: Sub Saharian Africa-  Daniel arap Moi becomes president of Kenya.


Northern Ireland

January 18, 1978: Northern Ireland-   The European Court of Human Rights finds the United Kingdom government guilty of mistreating prisoners in Northern Ireland, but not guilty of torture.

June 21, 1978: Northern Ireland-  An outbreak of shooting between Provisional IRA members and the British Army leaves one civilian and three IRA men dead.


............ and that would be it for 1978

Offline Old Wombat

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Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #4 on: December 04, 2012, 10:46:34 AM »
June-December, 1984: Far East-  AS CVN-71 Theodore Roosevelt enter service with US Navy, RAN receives former CVN-59 Forrestal that is renamed H.M.A.S. Melbourne and equipped with F4J Phantoms.

Either this one is dated incorrectly or Lost in Time!

1978 is wrong for re-naming Forrestal as Melbourne, as she was still a commissioned warship, however the name Sydney was free for use, whilst Canberra is a possibility as the Adelaide-class (modified Oliver Hazard Perry class) Canberra was commissioned in 1978 - the name could simply have been slated onto the bigger warship prior to commissioning.

1984 is OK for re-naming Forrestal as Melbourne but is relatively unlikely as the previous Melbourne had only recently been scrapped but Sydney & Canberra were already FFG's.

Mind you, with the fixed-wing squadrons continuing I would have stayed in the RAN........ Now, 28 years later, I'd probably still only be an AB, though! ;D

Cheers!

Guy.
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Offline GTX_Admin

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Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #5 on: December 04, 2012, 06:52:34 PM »

Either this one is dated incorrectly or Lost in Time!

1978 is wrong for re-naming Forrestal as Melbourne, as she was still a commissioned warship, however the name Sydney was free for use, whilst Canberra is a possibility as the Adelaide-class (modified Oliver Hazard Perry class) Canberra was commissioned in 1978 - the name could simply have been slated onto the bigger warship prior to commissioning.

1984 is OK for re-naming Forrestal as Melbourne but is relatively unlikely as the previous Melbourne had only recently been scrapped but Sydney & Canberra were already FFG's.

In the whiff verse anything is possible...RW doesn't need to align.
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Offline Old Wombat

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Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #6 on: December 04, 2012, 11:05:12 PM »

Either this one is dated incorrectly or Lost in Time!

1978 is wrong for re-naming Forrestal as Melbourne, as she was still a commissioned warship, however the name Sydney was free for use, whilst Canberra is a possibility as the Adelaide-class (modified Oliver Hazard Perry class) Canberra was commissioned in 1978 - the name could simply have been slated onto the bigger warship prior to commissioning.

1984 is OK for re-naming Forrestal as Melbourne but is relatively unlikely as the previous Melbourne had only recently been scrapped but Sydney & Canberra were already FFG's.

In the whiff verse anything is possible...RW doesn't need to align.

This is correct.

I was mostly pointing out the 1984 date in his 1978 time-line but I thought I'd add the comments as Glanini appears to be keeping very close to actual historical events.

Cheers!

Guy.

 ??? ... Why am I hearing David Bowie?? ... :icon_music:
"This is the Captain. We have a little problem with our engine sequence, so we may experience some slight turbulence and, ah, explode."

Offline Logan Hartke

  • High priest in the black arts of profiling...
  • Rivet-counting whiffer
Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #7 on: December 04, 2012, 11:43:44 PM »
??? ... Why am I hearing David Bowie?? ... :icon_music:

I don't know, do you have a child that you wish the goblin king would take away?  Are you striving to surpass a rival magician at any cost?

Thanks,

Logan

Offline Old Wombat

  • "We'll see when I've finished whether I'm showing off or simply embarrassing myself."
  • "Define 'interesting'?"
Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #8 on: December 05, 2012, 12:02:55 AM »
I was thinking more along the lines of the "Diamond Dogs" album.

But my daughters were watching "Labyrinth" yesterday. ;)


PS: Glanini, where are you going next? I like what you've done, so far; the real & the whif blend seamlessly into a very realistic alternate history.
« Last Edit: December 05, 2012, 12:20:43 AM by Old Wombat »
"This is the Captain. We have a little problem with our engine sequence, so we may experience some slight turbulence and, ah, explode."

Offline Logan Hartke

  • High priest in the black arts of profiling...
  • Rivet-counting whiffer
Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #9 on: December 05, 2012, 12:13:55 AM »
Yes, I know, but I never pass up a Labyrinth reference.  I love watching the reactions of people watching it for the first time.   :o :-\

Cheers,

Logan

Offline Glanini

  • Newly Joined - Welcome me!
Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #10 on: December 05, 2012, 05:23:00 AM »
..... saw Bowie in 1986 live in Rome...... I have seen better shows.........

let's move to 1979

1979

News

March 25, 1979: News- The first fully functional Space Shuttle orbiter, Columbia, is delivered to the John F. Kennedy Space Center, to be prepared for its first launch.

June 15, 1979: News - The U.S. has people bumper to bumper in long lines waiting to buy gas.

July 1, 1979: News -The Sony Walkman, a small hand held cassette player, goes on sale in Japan, soon it will become a worldwide success.

July 15, 1979: News -  President Carter makes his so-called malaise speech. The speech is his response to his question why the nation has been unable to resolve its energy problem. He speaks of our "erosion of confidence in the future" and says that we can develop a new unity of purpose and new confidence. He concludes: "Let us commit ourselves together to a rebirth of the American spirit. Working together with our common faith we cannot fail.".

September 19-23, 1979 : News -  Musicians United for Safe Energy (MUSE) stages a series of five 'No Nukes' concerts at Madison Square Garden. Jackson Browne, Crosby, Stills & Nash, Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band, Bonnie Raitt, Tom Petty, James Taylor and Carly Simon are among the participants.

October 6, 1979: News -   The energy crisis continues. Inflation in the U.S. has been running at an annual rate of 10.75 percent, unprecedented for peacetime.

November 7, 1979: News -  U.S. Senator Edward Moore Kennedy announces that he will challenge President Jimmy Carter for the 1980 Democratic presidential nomination.

December 26-29, 1979: News -  The Concerts for the People of Kampuchea are held over four nights at the Hammersmith Odeon in London to raise funds for victims of war in Cambodia. Queen, The Who, The Clash, Wings, Elvis Costello and members of Led Zeppelin all take part.


Central Front/Europe

January 1, 1979: Central Front/Europe- Full diplomatic relations between United States and People’s Republic of China are established.

January 21, 1979: Central Front/Europe- Last flight of the Northrop F17 Cobra, the lightweight fighter contender of the General Dynamics F16.

March 8, 1979: Central Front/Europe- Albania cuts relationship with People Republic of China and enters in the Warsaw Pact, USSR agrees to supply new military equipment and training to the Albanian military.

March 16, 1979: Central Front/Europe- First flight of the Bomber variant of McDonnell Douglas MD80, co-developed by Italy, West Germany and United States. The Italian version is called B80 “Sparviero”.

March 28, 1979: Central Front/Europe- In Britain, Jim Callaghan's government loses a motion of confidence by one vote, forcing a general election.

April 7, 1979: Central Front/Europe- The new West Germany Heer Main Battle Tank the “Leopard II” built by Krauss-Maffey enters in Service.

May 4, 1979: Central Front/Europe- Counting in the previous day's British general election shows that the Conservatives have won and Margaret Thatcher becomes the new prime minister.

June 2, 1979: Central Front/Europe- Pope John Paul II arrives in his native Poland on his first official, nine-day stay, becoming the first Pope to visit a Communist country. This visit, known as nine days that changed the world, brought about the solidarity of the Polish peoples against communism, ultimately leading to the rise of the Solidarity movement.

June 10, 1979: Central Front/Europe-United Kingdom PM Margaret Thatcher signs a major deal for military equipment with the United States Government for 160 General Dynamics F16, 80 McDonnell F15 and 48 McDonnell F18 fighters at the same time US and Canada agrees on buying Panavia Tornados bombers and Hawk trainers built by British Aerospace. The development of the fighter version of the Tornado, the F100 is stopped, lacking the support of RAF.

June 18, 1979: Central Front/Europe- The Soviet Union's Leonid Brezhnev and U.S. President Carter sign the SALT II agreement in Vienna, to finalize the dismantling of nuclear arsenal by 1983.

June 25,  1979: Central Front/Europe- Belgium: NATO Supreme Allied Commander Alexander Haig escapes an assassination attempt by the Baader-Meinhof terrorist organization.

July 2, 1979: Central Front/Europe- UK government decides to bring back into service the Aircraft Carrier HMS Ark Royal that will be equipped with McDonnell F18 Hornets and Grumman F14A Tomcat. The target date is set by mid 1982 to have the Carrier and its Airplanes full operational.

July 3, 1979 : Central Front/Europe- U.S. President Jimmy Carter signs the first directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul. His National Security Advisor, Zbigniew Brzezinski, tells Carter that this aid will induce a Soviet military intervention. He wants to draw the Russians into a disaster -- its Vietnam War.

November 9, 1979 : Central Front/Europe- Nuclear false alarm: the NORAD computers and the Alternate National Military Command Center in Fort Ritchie, Maryland detected purported massive Soviet nuclear strike. After reviewing the raw data from satellites and checking the early warning radars, the alert was cancelled.

November 24, 1979: Central Front/Europe- Pope Jean Paul II is visiting Turkey. There, Mehmet Ali Agca, a murderer for the right wing organization “Grey Wolves”, escapes from prison and describes the Pope's visit as part of the infidel plot in Mecca and the Pope as masquerading as a man of faith. He warns that "the crusaders" will pay for this.


Middle East

January-June,  1979: Middle East- Violent exchanges resumed between the PLO and the Israeli/SLA alliance. The PLO attack the SLA while it continued its efforts to consolidate power along the Lebanese-Israeli border. The PLO also continues to fire rockets into northern Israeli towns, while Israel retaliates with air raids against PLO positions.The PLO routinely attacks Israel during the period of the cease-fire, with over 270 documented attacks.

March 22, 1979: Middle East- The Knesset approves the peace treaty between Israel and Egypt.

March 26, 1979: Middle East- In a ceremony at the White House, President Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel sign a peace treaty.

June, 1979 : Middle East- Israel signs a re-newed weapons deal with France for Dassault Mirage 2000 to enter in service in 1982, it will receive Mirage F1 as a stop gap.

October 21, 1979 : Middle East- Moshe Dayan resigns from the Israeli government. Dayan stated that he felt isolated from the Palestinian autonomy talks and was reduced to handling marginal foreign policy chores.

Central America

February 1, 1979: Central America- The Sandinistas establish a broader popular front organisation called the Frente Patriótico Nacional (National Patriotic Front – FPN), which besides the FSLN includes Los Doce, the Independent Liberal Party (PLI), and the Popular Social Christian Party (Partido Popular Social Christiano – PPSC). The FPN has a broad appeal, including political support from elements of the FAO and the business sector.

February 8, 1979: Central America- The Carter administration believes its negotiations with the Somoza regime have failed. It announces that the U.S. is severing longstanding military ties with Nicaragua and ordering U.S. personnel serving in Nicaragua to return to the United States.

March 13, 1979: Central America- On the island of Grenada, in the Caribbean, a Marxist, Maurice Bishop, overthrows Eric Gairy, who had a reputation for corruption and authoritarianism. It has been claimed that Bishop made his move believing Gairy was going to attack Bishop's movement. The coup is popular. Bishop will replace parliament with worker's councils and transform Grenada into a socialist state with collective farms but also free enterprise and trade with the United States.

May 21, 1979: Central America-  Mexico breaks diplomatic relations with Nicaragua and urges the U.S. to end all remaining assistance programs to the Somoza regime.

May 24, 1979: Central America- About 300 Sandinista insurgents are reported to have entered Nicaragua from Costa Rica.

May 24, 1979: Central America- Carter administration suspends all military aids to Guatemala and retreat all the advisors from the country.

June 1, 1979: Central America- The Sandinistas rebels start their all-out final military offensive against the Somoza regime.

June 5, 1979: Central America- In Matagalpa, fighting begin on June 5 between the national Guard and the Sandinistas, who have entered the city that day. For about a month, the National Guard strafe and bomb the city, which still has many civilians in it, from the air and fired mortars into it. The Sandinistas move through the city by knocking holes in the walls of houses so that they could go from house to house without exposing themselves in the street

June 16, 1979: Central America- The troops of FSLN took the National Guard post in León, about seventyfive km North West of Managua

June 20, 1979 :Central America- A Nicaraguan National Guard soldier kills ABC TV news correspondent Bill Stewart and his interpreter Juan Espinosa. Other members of the news crew capture the killing on tape.

June  29, 1979 :Central America- the Sandinistas in Managua executd a tactical retreat. They move about eight thousand combattants and civilians twentysix km South East, out of the neighbourhoods of Managua, where they are being slaughtered, to Masaya, which by then the National Guards could not easily strike. Some of the civilians are trained there to become FSLN militia

July 5, 1979: Central America-  The Sandinistas control eighty percent of Nicaragua: twenty-three major citities and towns.

July 5, 1979: Central America The Sandinistas are in control of the major roads into Managua, cutting the National Guard's land communications with the outside world.

July 17, 1979: Central America-  The dictator Anastasio Somoza flees from Nicaragua to his Florida island villa in the United States. There he declares that a Communist conspiracy has driven him from power. Much of Latin America is pleased by the fall of Somoza.

July 19, 1979: Central America-  Marxist Sandinistas take power in the capital city, Managua.

September 11, 1979: Central America-  The Carter administration warns Congress that failure by the United States to supply aid to Nicaragua could push the new leadership there toward Communism.

October 15, 1979 :Central America- In El Salvador, the civil-military Junta Revolucionaria de Gobierno (Revolutionary Government Junta) — JRG — deposes President General Carlos Humberto Romero.


Southern America

January 1, 1979: South America – Argentina start the Operation Soberanía against Chile. The Argentine Government plans to first occupy the islands around Cape Horn and then, in a second phase, either to stop or continue hostilities according to the Chilean reaction.

January 1, 1979: South America – A task force of the Argentine Navy and the Naval Infantry seize the islands Horn, Freycinet, Hershell, Deceit and Wollaston.  The Argentine task force (with Batallones N° 3 and N° 4 of the Naval Infantry) seize Picton, Nueva und Lennox islands and secure for the navy the east mouth of the Beagle Channel.  The Fifth Army Corps under command of José Antonio Vaquero would seize Punta Arenas and Puerto Natales, the largest two cities of the Chilean Magallanes Region.

January 1, 1979: South America – The combat-ready Chilean fleet sails from the fjords of Hoste Island to frustrate an Argentine landing.

January 2, 1979: South America – The Argentine Air Force attacks  Chilean Air Force bases. Eight Canberras are destroyed on ground but Chilean MiG 23 fighters shot down five Mirages losing two airplanes.

January 3, 1979: South America –Argentina Third Army Corps start an offensive through the Andean passes of "Libertadores", "Maipo" and "Puyehue" (today Cardenal Samore Pass) to seize Santiago, Valparaíso and the Los Lagos Region.

January 8, 1979: South America –- The Second Army Corps under the command of Leopoldo Galtieri is deployed to  protect the north of Argentina from a potential Brazilian attack and its II Brigada de Caballería blindada would protect the Argentine region of Río Mayo in Chubut Province from a possible Chilean attack in the area.

January 10, 1979: South America – Chilean army repulses Argentina’s attack across the Andes

January 11, 1979: South America –The Pope asks for peace in the Chile – Argentina war.

January 18, 1979: South America –Argentina has seized control over the Beagle Channel islands but has failed in the mainland.

March 4, 1979: South America- The front is at stalemate on the Andes, neither Chile or Argentina has gained political support for other countries and are running short of supplies.

March 15, 1979: South America- João Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo is named President of Brazil by the Military Junta that rules the country.

March 16, 1979: South America- Chile and Argentina sign the Act of Montevideo formally requesting mediation by the Vatican and renouncing the use of force.

April, 1979: South America- Despite the declining economy, President Allende's Popular Unity coalition increase its vote to 43.2 percent in the March 1973 parliamentary elections; but, by then, the informal alliance between Popular Unity and the Christian Democrats ends. The CIA pay some U.S. $6.8-$8 million to right-wing opposition groups to "create pressures, exploit weaknesses, magnify obstacles" and hasten Allende's deposition.

May, 1979: South America- Chilean and Argentine delegations arrive in Rome, , when the Pope presented the parties with his proposal for settling the dispute. The proposal is accepted on May 28th.

August, 1979: South America- A constitutional crisis occur in Chile; the Supreme Court publicly complains about the Allende Government's inability to enforce the law of the land. The Chamber of Deputies (with the Christian Democrats united with the National Party) accuse the Allende Government of unconstitutional acts and call upon the military to enforce constitutional order.

August 24, 1979: South America- A scandal forces General Prats is forced to resign both as defence minister and as the Army Commander-in-chief of Chile.

September 11, 1979: South America- Chile's democratically elected government is overthrown in a military coup after serious instability. President Salvador Allende commits suicide during the coup in the presidential palace, and General Augusto Pinochet heads a U.S.-backed military junta.

September 11-30, 1979: South America- Fewer than sixty individuals died as a direct result of fighting on 11 September although the MIR and GAP continued to fight the following days. In all, fortysix of Allende's praetorian guards were killed, some of them in combat with the soldiers that took the Moneda. On the military side, there were thirtyfour deaths.

October-December 1979: South America- The Chilean security forces sustain one hundred sixty two dead in the three following months as a result of continued resistance and tens of thousands of people are arrested during the coup and held in the National Stadium. This is because the plans for the coup called for the arrest of every man, woman and child on the streets the morning of 11 September. Of these approximately 40,000 to 50,000 perfunctory arrests, several hundred individuals would later be detained, questioned, tortured, and in some cases murdered. While these deaths did not occur before the surrender of Allende's forces, they occur as a direct result of arrests and round-ups during the coup's military action.


Offline Glanini

  • Newly Joined - Welcome me!
Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #11 on: December 08, 2012, 12:25:08 AM »
1979

Southern Africa

March 29, 1979 : Southern Africa-  In Resolution 447, the UN Security Council conclude "that the intensity and timing of these acts of armed invasion are intended to frustrate attempts at negotiated settlements in southern Africa" and voice concern "about the damage and wanton destruction of property caused by the South African armed invasions of Angola launched from Namibia, a territory which South Africa illegally occupies". It strongly condemn "the racist regime of South Africa for its premeditated, persistent and sustained armed invasions ... of Angola", its "utilization of the international territory of Namibia as a springboard for armed invasions and destabilization of ... Angola" and demand that "South Africa cease immediately its provocative armed invasions against ...Angola".

September 6, 1979: Southern Africa-  Rhodesia announces that its forces are staging a land and air attack against troops and installations of the Mozambican Army as well as insurgent bases inside Mozambique.

October-December, 1979: Southern Africa-  Major attack in Mozambique by Rhodesian forces supported by SADF. All ZANU and ZIPLA bases are destroyed. It will take more than two years for ZANU and ZIPLA to rebuild their infrastructure.


Afghanistan

February 14, 1979: Afghanistan-  In Kabul, Muslim extremists kidnap the American ambassador to Afghanistan, Adolph Dubs, who is later killed during a gunfight between his kidnappers and police.

March 10-20, 1979: Afghanistan-  Afghan army officers in the city of Herat mutiny. Afghan and Soviet air forces bomb the city, killing an estimated five thousand civilians.

April, 1979: Afghanistan- Helicopters with Afghan insignia but manned by Soviet pilots in support of a DRA offensive in the Kunar Valley destroy the village of Kerala killing approximately one thousand people.

May 17, 1979: Afghanistan- Mechanized brigade of the Afghan 7th Division defects to the Mujaideen in the Paktia province.

June, 1979: Afghanistan-  An insurrection led by Ahmed Shah Massoud expells all government forces from the Panjshir valley that become a guerilla stronghold.

August, 1979: Afghanistan- 5th Brigade of the Afghan 9th Division mutinies and supports rebel in the Kunar Valley.

September 16, 1979: Afghanistan- In Afghanistan, squabbling within the Taraki regime results in Taraki's death. Vice President Hafizullah Amin takes power.

October 9, 1979: Afghanistan-  In Afghanistan, Amin announces that his predecessor, Taraki, died from "a severe and prolonged illness.".

October 31, 1979: Afghanistan-  Soviet informants to the Afghan Armed Forces who are under orders from the inner circle of advisors under Soviet premier Brezhnev, relay information for them to undergo maintenance cycles for their tanks and other crucial equipment. Meanwhile, telecommunications links to areas outside of Kabul are severed, isolating the capital.

November 1-30, 1979: Afghanistan-  Afghans have been fleeing to Iran and Pakistan and organizing resistance against what they view as the "atheistic" and "infidel" Communist Amin regime. President Amin launches a successful military operation against anti-government forces in Paktria Province (next to Pakistan) obliterating a few villages. He also attempts to appease opinion by promising more religious freedom and to repair mosques. He begins distributing the Koran. He refers to Allah in his speeches and describes his revolution as "totally based on the principles of Islam.".

December 10, 1979: Afghanistan-  In response to the siege at Mecca, the Carter administration has dispatched the carrier U.S.S. Kitty Hawk and a battle group from the Philippines to the Persian Gulf. Military leadership in the Soviet Union, initially cool to the idea of sending troops into Afghanistan has decided that if the U.S. can make such a deployment tens of thousands of kilometers from its territory why should the Soviet Union not be able to defend its positions in neighboring Afghanistan. The Soviet military begins to assemble a force of 75,000 to 80,000 along the Afghan-Soviet border.

December 12, 1979: Afghanistan- Soviet Politburo reaches decision for invasion of Afghanistan.

December 24, 1979 : Afghanistan- The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan. Large numbers of Soviet airborne forces join stationed ground troops and begin to land in Kabul. Simultaneously, Amin moves the offices of the president to the Tajbeg Palace, believing this location to be more secure from possible threats.

December 27, 1979 : Afghanistan- 700 Soviet troops dressed in Afghan uniforms, including KGB and GRU special force officers from the Alpha Group and Zenith Group, occupy major governmental, military and media buildings in Kabul, including their primary target – the Tajbeg Presidential Palace. The Soviet military command at Termez announces on Radio Kabul that Afghanistan has been liberated from Amin's rule and Amin had been "executed by a tribunal for his crimes" by the Afghan Revolutionary Central Committee.

December 28, 1979 : Afghanistan- Soviet ground forces enter Afghanistan from the north . In the morning, the 103rd Guards 'Vitebsk' Airborne Division lands at the airport at Bagram and the deployment of Soviet troops in Afghanistan is underway. The force that enter Afghanistan, in addition to the 103rd Guards Airborne Division, is under command of the 40th Army and consisted of the 108th and 5th Guards Motor Rifle Divisions, the 860th Separate Motor Rifle Regiment, the 56th Separate Airborne Assault Brigade, the 36th Mixed Air Corps. Later on the 201st and 58th Motor Rifle Divisions also enter the country, along with other smaller units. In all, the initial Soviet force is around 1,800 tanks, 80,000 soldiers and 2,000 AFVs. In the second week alone, Soviet aircrafts have made a total of 4,000 flights into Kabul. With the arrival of the two later divisions, the total Soviet force rise to over 100,000 personnel.

December 29, 1979: Afghanistan-  Another member of the PDPA, who has been in safe exile as the ambassador to the Czech Republic, becomes President of Afghanistan: Babrak Kamal.

December 31, 1979: Afghanistan-  President Carter tells ABC News that the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan has "made a more dramatic change in my own opinion of what the Soviets' ultimate goals are than anything they've done in the previous time I've been in office."

Iran-Iraq

January, 1979: Iran-Iraq- The leader of the National Front, one of the rebel faction, Shopar Bakhtiar, is nominated Prime Minister of Iran. He orders all political prisoners to be freed, lifts censorship and dissolves the infamous secret police Savak.

January 16, 1979: Iran-Iraq- Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran flees Iran with his family, relocating to Egypt after a year of turmoil.

February 1, 1979 : Iran-Iraq-  Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returns to Tehran, Iran after nearly fifteen years of exile in France.

February 10–11, 1979: Iran-Iraq- Several units of the Iranian army mutinies and join the Islamic Revolution.

February 11, 1979 : Iran-Iraq- Khomeini seizes power in Iran. He has been demanding Bakhtiar's resignation. Youthful Khomeini supporters seize weapons and take control of the streets. Bakhtiar goes underground and will resurface in Paris in July. United States citizens who have been working in Iran begin to leave, joining many wealthy Iranians who for weeks have been emigrating.

April 1, 1979: Iran-Iraq- Iran's government becomes an Islamic Republic by a 98% vote, overthrowing the Shah officially.

April 10, 1979: Iran-Iraq- Seven Israeli operatives are smuggled into the compound of the French company “Costrunctiones Navales et Industriells” near Toulon and destroy the near complete Osirak housing delaying the program by at least six months. 

July 16, 1979: Iran-Iraq- Iraqi President Hasan al-Bakr resigns and Vice President Saddam Hussein replaces him.

November 4, 1979: Iran-Iraq-  Iran hostage crisis begins: three thousand Iranian radicals, mostly students, invade the United States Embassy in Tehran and take ninenty hostages (fiftythree of whom are American). They demand that the United States send the former Shah of Iran back to stand trial.

November 12, 1979 : Iran-Iraq- In response to the hostage situation in Tehran, U.S. President Jimmy Carter orders a halt to all oil imports into the United States from Iran.

November 20, 1979: Iran-Iraq- According to the Muslim calendar it is the beginning of a new century. Around 200 of heavily armed Sunni followers, with an appointed young Mahdi, take over the crowded Grand Mosque in Mecca, believing that with God they are overthrowing the Saudi government, which they believe to be corrupt and in league with the devil.

November 21, 1979: Iran-Iraq- The Carter administration suspects that the seige at Mecca is a creation of Iran's Ayatolah Khomeini. Iran's foreign ministry complains that "Zionist and U.S. circles" are associating the uprising with Iran. Then Khomeini accuses the U.S. and Israel of orchestating what he describes as the despicable horrors at the Grand Mosque at Mecca. A wave of anti-U.S. demostrations and attacks against U.S. embassies sweeps across the Muslim world, first on this day in Pakistan.

November 25-30, 1979 : Iran-Iraq- In Saudi Arabia's eastern oil producing region, along the Persian Gulf, youths belonging to the county's Shiite minority rebel. The Saudi government blacks out all news of the uprising. With armored personnel carriers, machine guns, helicopter gunships and artillery, the Saudi National Guard crushes the rising. The older generation of Shiite leaders in the area successfully sue for peace.

December 4, 1979 : Iran-Iraq- The Carter administration responds to anti-U.S. demonstrations and the siege at Mecca with a formulation that will be called the Carter Doctrine, intended to demonstrate U.S. strength and commitment to the defense of countries in the Persian Gulf region that are of "vital interest" to the United States. Within a few days U.S. negotiators will fly to Oman to discuss establishing a military base. It is the beginning of an increased military presence in the Gulf region.

December 5, 1979 : Iran-Iraq- The Saudi Press Agency issues a statement by Prince Nayef that "the purge of renegades" from the Grand Mosque has been completed. Many pilgrims have died, their number to be officially declared as 26. Independent observers and witnesses estimate that more than 1,000 have died.

December 6, 1979: Iran-Iraq-  U.S. officials announce that the Soviet Union is giving low-key support to U.S. efforts to release the hostages in Iran.


Far East/Oceania

January 7, 1979 : Far East- The South Vietnamese province of Phuoc Binh become the first to be captured by Viet Cong invaders, who lead an assault with tanks and three infantry divisions. Twenty North Vietnam Air Force planes are shot down.

January 8, 1979 : Far East- After South Vietnam's Phuoc Long province has been conquered without any intervention by the United States, the Politburo of North Vietnam's Communist Party approves "Campaign 275", to "liberate" the rest of South Vietnam, starting with a full-scale attack on the Central Highlands.

March 1, 1979 : Far East- The army of North Vietnam, led by General Van Tien Dung, begin an attack on the Central Highlands of South Vietnam, starting at Pleiku, before moving on to Ban Me Thuot.

March 10, 1979 : Far East- After the fall of Ban Me Thuot, South Vietnam's President Thieu make the decision to abandon the northwestern half of the nation to the North Vietnamese invaders, withdrawing troops and ordering an evacuation, in hopes of consolidating a defense of the reamining provinces around Saigon.

March 10, 1979 : Far East- Troops of the Army of North Vietnam begin an early morning attack on the city of Ban Me Thuot in South Vietnam, easily overrunning a South Vietnam Army regiment of defenders. "Campaign 275" is over and has effectively placed half of South Vietnam behind enemy lines. The defeat creates a "domino effect" that will lead to the conquest disintegration of South Vietnam, as ARVN troops abandon the Highlands and fled south

March 29, 1979 : Far East- As North Vietnam's army make its way into Da Nang, a World Airways Boeing 727 make its fourth and final flight to evacuate refugees to safety in South Vietnam. When the airline's President, Ed Dalye, arrives, there are over one thousand people at Da Nang. Instead of women and children, four hundred South Vietnamese soldiers force their way onto a plane which normally carry one hundred fifty passengers. The jet take off with its back stairway still open, and those who do not make it on board try to climb on into the wheelwells and the undercarriage of the jet.

April 10, 1979 : Far East- Republican Party goes to Congress to request a $722 million supplemental military aid package for South Vietnam plus $250 million in economic and refugee aid. Democrats, the majority in both houses, are not impressed. On 17 April the discussion is ended. There will be no more funds for Saigon.

April 11, 1979 : Far East- North Vietnam takes control of six of the Spratly Islands which has been under the control of South Vietnam, but has also been claimed by the People's Republic of China. The dispute between the two Communist nations over ownership of the tiny islands will be one of several factors in the war between China and Vietnam in 1981.

April 14, 1979 : Far East- General Dung of NVA receives new instructions from Hanoi. "We must be in Saigon to celebrate Ho Chi Minh's birthday." That deadline, 19 May, is only one month away. At that point, Dung decides to bypass the defenders at Xuan Loc and commence the shelling of Bien Hoa Air Base, effectively ending ARVN air support.

April 21, 1979 : Far East- South Vietnam's President Nguyen Van Thieu resignes and flee the country, taking with him a fortune in gold bullion.

April 26-29, 1979 : Far East- On the 26th, the North Vietnamese launches an all-out attack to take Bien Hoa and the sprawling logistical complex at Long Binh from the south and southeast. Three days later, the port city of Vung Tau is under assault and the pressure against the Cu Chi front is intense.

April 28, 1979 : Far East- PAVN forces fight their way into the outskirts of Saigon. At the Newport Bridge, about three miles (five kilometers) from the city center, South Vietnamese soldiers battle with PAVN troops attempting to control the span, cutting the city's last overland connection to the south and thereby gaining immediate access to downtown Saigon. Later that afternoon, as President Minh finishes his acceptance speech, a formation of four A-37s, captured from South Vietnamese Air Force, bomb Tan Son Nhut airport. As Bien Hoa is falling, General Toan flee to Saigon, informing the government that most of the top ARVN leadership has virtually resigned themselves to defeat

April 29, 1979 : Far East- In Saigon, the order to carry out Operation Frequent Wind is received, commencing the evacuation of all Americans and Australian from South Vietnam, as well as South Vietnamese nationals who might face retaliation. The first wave of helicopters is dispatched from the aircraft carrier USS Hancock at 12:44 pm and landed by 3:00 pm on the grounds of the U.S. Defense Attaché Office compound at Tan Son Nhut Air Base. In all, 70 American helicopters evacuate 1,373 Americans, 5,595 South Vietnamese, 500 Australians and 815 foreign nationals in a span of 18 hours.

April 30, 1979 : Far East- In Saigon,  South Vietnam's President Duong Van Minh announces the surrender of the nation to North Vietnamese invaders. "I believe firmly in reconciliation among Vietnamese to avoid unnecessary shedding of the blood of Vietnamese," said Minh. "For this reason, I ask the soldiers of the Republic of Vietnam to cease hostilities in calm and to stay where they are." The Viet Cong flag is raised over the presidential palace at 12:15. Earlier in the day, U.S. Ambassador Graham Martin is the last American diplomat to leave Saigon. Saigon is renamed "Ho Chi Minh City".

May 3, 1979 : Far East- All former South Vietnamese military personnel and government officials are ordered to register with the victorious Communist conquerors, starting with generals on May 8 and 9th. One month later, all registrants will be ordered to report to reeducation camps.

August, 1979 : Far East- Vietnamese leadership decides to support internal resistance to the Pol Pot regime and the Eastern Zone of Cambodia become a focus of insurrection.

October, 1979 : Far East- Khmer Rouge bellicosity in the border areas with Vietnam surpass Hanoi's threshold of tolerance. Radio Phnom Penh declared that if each Cambodian soldier killed thirty Vietnamese, only two million troops would be needed to eliminate the entire Vietnamese population of fifty million. It appears that the leadership in Phnom Penh was seized with immense territorial ambitions, i.e., to recover Kampuchea Krom, the Mekong Delta region which they regarded as Khmer territory

October 26, 1979 : Far East- South Korea's president, Park Chung Hee, is assassinated by his KCIA (Korean Central Intelligence Agency) chief, Kim Jaekyu.

November, 1979 : Far East- Pro-Vietnamese Khmer Rouge leader Vorn Vet lead an unsuccessful coup d'état and is subsequently arrested, tortured and executed. Incidents escalate along all of Cambodia's borders. There are now tens of thousands of Cambodian and Vietnamese exiles on Vietnamese territory.

December 12, 1979: Far East- At South Korea's headquarters and Ministry of Defense, a bloody shoot out leaves Chun Doo-hwan and close friends in control of South Korea's military.

December 22, 1979: Far East- Vietnam launches its offensive with the intent of overthrowing Democratic Kampuchea. An invasion force of 120,000, consisting of combined armor and infantry units with strong artillery support, drive west into the level countryside of Cambodia's southeastern provinces.






Offline Glanini

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Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #12 on: December 09, 2012, 02:01:03 AM »
Mediterrean/North Africa

February 12, 1979: Mediterrean / North Africa- Prime Minister Hissène Habré starts the Battle of N'Djamena in an attempt to overthrow Chad's President Félix Malloum.

March 31, 1979: Mediterrean / North Africa-  The last British soldier (belonging to the Royal Navy) leaves the Maltese Islands, after 179 years of presence. Malta declares its Freedom Day (Jum il-Helsien).

May, 1979: Mediterrean / North Africa-  The U.S. State Department gives the U.S. company Northrop Page Communications the go-ahead to build a $200-million electronic detection-system to help Morocco detect Polisario fighters

August 5, 1979: Mediterrean / North Africa-  The Polisario Front signs a peace traty with Mauritania, in which the new government recognizes Sahrawi rights to Western Sahara and relinquishes its own claims. Mauritania withdraw all its forces and will later proceed to formally recognize the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, causing a massive rupture in relations with Morocco. King Hassan II of Morocco immediately claims the area of Western Sahara evacuated by Mauritania (Tiris al-Gharbiya, roughly corresponding to the southern half of Río de Oro), which is unilaterally annexed by Morocco in August 1979.


Sub Saharian Africa

March 12, 1979: Sub Saharian Africa- In Congo-Brazzaville, General Sassou-Nguessou climbs to power in a military coup and establishes himself as a Marxist ruler.

April 11, 1979: Sub Saharian Africa-  Idi Amin of Uganda has been at war against Tanzania, where anti-Amin Ugandans gathered. On this day, Tanzanian forces and Ugandan exiles force Amin to flee Uganda's capital city, Kampala. Amin is headed for Libya. Eventually he will find asylum in Saudi Arabia.

April 17, 1979: Sub Saharian Africa-  The newly converted Roman Catholic emperor, Jean-Bédel Bokassa, since 1966 has ruled in what is now called the Central African Empire. He dislikes schoolchildren protesting against the compulsory wearing of school uniforms. The children are arrested and around 100 of them are massacred.

September 20, 1979: Sub-Saharian Africa- French paratroopers help David Dacko to overthrow Bokassa in the Central African Republic.

1979

February 20, 1979: Northern Ireland-  Eleven loyalists known as the "Shankill Butchers" are sentenced to life in prison for nineteen murders. The gang is named for its late-night kidnapping, torture and murder (by throat slashing) of random Catholic civilians in Belfast.

March 30, 1979: Northern Ireland-  The INLA assassinates Airey Neave, Conservative MP and advisor to Margaret Thatcher. The INLA explodes a booby-trap bomb underneath his car as he leaves the House of Commons, London. If he have lived, he might have become Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, when the Conservatives win the United Kingdom general election two months later.

August 27, 1979: Northern Ireland-  Provisional Irish Republic Army terrorists have planted a fifty-pound bomb on Lord Mountbatten's thirty-foot sailboat. It is detonated by radio control . Mountbatten, a grandson fourteen and his fifteen-year old friend are also killed, along with the eightythree-year-old mother-in-law of Mountbatten's eldest daughter. On the same day Eighteen British Army soldiers are killed when the PIRA exploded two roadside bombs as a British convoy passed Narrow Water Castle near Warrenpoint. There is a brief exchange of fire, and the British Army shot dead a civilian.

September, 1979: Northern Ireland-  During a visit to the Republic of Ireland, Pope John Paul II appeal for an end to the violence in Northern Ireland.



Offline Glanini

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Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #13 on: December 15, 2012, 05:23:36 PM »
1980

News
February 13-24, 1980: News -  The 1980 Winter Olympics open in Lake Placid, New York.

March 3, 1980: News - Pierre Trudeau of the Liberal Party of Canada returns to office after less than one year as the Prime Minister of Canada. 

April 5, 1980: News -  In the last twelve months the price of crude oil has more than doubled: from $15.85 per barrel to $39.50.

June 11-22, 1980: News -  the 1980 UEFA European Football Championship are played in Italy and won by West Germany that beats Belgium 2-1 in the final.

June 20, 1980 : News -  The movie “The Blues Brothers” by John Landis and with John Belushi and Dan Aykroid is released in the US, starring John Belushi and Dan Akroyd, together with many Rhythm and Blues Stars like Ray Charles, Aretha Franklin.

July 17, 1980: News - At the Republican National Convention, Ronald Reagan becomes the party's presidential nominee. In his acceptance speech his speaks of " family, work, neighborhood, peace and freedom." He says he wants his candidacy "to unify our country; to renew the American spirit and sense of purpose." He says he "will not stand by and watch this great country destroy itself under mediocre leadership that drifts from one crisis to the next, eroding our national will and purpose."

July 19, 1980: News -  In Moscow the Summer Olympic Games begin. Eighty-one nations partipate. Sixty-four countries have followed the U.S. lead and boycott the games, citing the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan. The British, Dutch, Irish, Italians, French, Spanish, Greeks, Finns, Swedes, Danes, Brazilians and Mexico were among those who participate.

August 14, 1980: News - U.S. President Jimmy Carter defeats Senator Edward Kennedy to win renomination at the 1980 Democratic National Convention in New York City.

November 4, 1980 : News - United States presidential election, 1980: Republican challenger and former Governor Ronald Reagan of California defeats incumbent Democratic President Jimmy Carter, exactly one year after the beginning of the Iran hostage crisis.

November 6, 1980: News - Microsoft signs a contract with IBM that will launch it as a major company. The contract is to develop software for IBM's new microcomputer.

December 8, 1980: News - In New York City, a deranged fan shoots and kills John Lennon, thousand of a people gather in cities all around the world to remember the former member of the Beatles.


Central Front/Europe

January 4, 1980 : Central Front/Europe- U.S. President Jimmy Carter proclaims a grain embargo against the USSR with the support of the European Commission following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

February 6, 1980 : Central Front/Europe- West Germany Aerospace Company MBB signs a deal to co-develop the new French Fighter Dassault Mirage 2000 that was lagging behind schedule.

February 18, 1980 : Central Front/Europe- Third Generation US Army Main Battle Tank M1A1 Abrams enters in service, a total of 8’000  are under order.

March 15, 1980: Central Front/Europe-  After an interruption of a few months, the East German Government resumes its program of releasing political prisoners in return for payments from West Germany.

March 21, 1980 : Central Front/Europe- U.S. President Jimmy Carter announces that the United States will boycott the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow as a reaction of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

May 4, 1980 : Central Front/Europe- Yugoslav President Tito dies. The funeral ceremony later becomes the world's biggest diplomatic meeting and media event ever, with more than 140 state delegations in Belgrade from all over the world

May 15, 1980 : Central Front/Europe- Communist hardliner Sergej Kraigher succeed to Tito as President of the Yugoslavian Federation

June 27, 1980: Central Front/Europe- U.S. President Jimmy Carter signs Proclamation 4771, requiring 18- to 25-year-old males to register for a peacetime military draft, in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

July 3, 1980: Central Front/Europe- Yugoslavia finalize negotiations with Soviet Union and re-enters in the Warsaw Pact, the deal is not made public but Federal Army will start receiving Soviet Equipment starting from the fall.

July 8, 1980: Central Front/Europe- A wave of strikes begins in Lublin, Poland to protest against the condition of life and the long working day .

August, 4 1980 : Central Front/Europe- First flight of the Northrop F20 Tigershark the new lightweight fighter developed mainly for export purposes.

August  7-14, 1980 : Central Front/Europe- In Poland the Communist government has found it economically necessary to stop subsidizing food prices. Prices have been rising, and citizens are protesting. Workers strike at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk -- the first of many such strikes. It is the beginning of the decline of Communism in Europe.

August 31, 1980: Central Front/Europe- Victory of the strike in Gdańsk Shipyard, Poland. Gdańsk Agreement is signed, opening a way to start the first in the communist block free organization not controlled by regime "Solidarność" i.e. Solidarity.

September 1981: Central Front/Europe- Following the events in Poland, Soviet Politburo decides to pursue the elimination of Pope John Paul II and involves Bulgarian Secret Sevice in the effort.

October 31, 1980: Central Front/Europe- The Communist regime governing Poland recognizes the new Union named Solidarity.

Middle East

January 26, 1980: Middle East- Israel and Egypt establish formal diplomatic relations.

April 7, 1980: Middle East- Five Palestinian Arab terrorists from the Iraqi-backed Arab Liberation Front penetrate kibbutz Misgav Am in the night and enter the kibbutz nursery. They kill the kibbutz secretary and an infant boy. They then hold the rest of the children as hostages, demanding the release of about 50 terrorists held in Israeli prisons. The first raid of an IDF infantry unit is unsuccessful, but a second attempt, a few hours later, succeeds, and all the terrorists are killed. Two kibbutz members and one soldier are killed, four children and 11 soldiers are wounded.

July 7, 1980 : Middle East-Raid of the Gemayel’s Phalangist militias in their rival Chamoun retreat. Eighty Chamoun’s Militians are killed and Danny Chamouns flees to Europe leaving the Gemayel’s family as the only leader of the Christian Maronites in Lebanon.

July 30, 1980 : Middle East- Israel's Knesset passes the Jerusalem Law. By which the holy city is the capital of the state of Israel


Central America
February, 1980:Central America-José Napoleón Duarte, the Christian Democratic Party (PDC) leader, joins the JRG as provisional-head-of-government, but the JRG is internally divided, vacillating about how strongly to manage the FMLN's armed insurrection and the military's institutional pressure against the JRG's moderates, seen as Marxist sympathizers.

March 24, 1980 Central America-  Archbishop Óscar Romero is killed by gunmen while celebrating Mass in San Salvador. At his funeral six days later, fortytwo people are killed amid gunfire and bombs.
April 15, 1980 : Central America-  Cuba allows any person who wants to leave the island free access to depart from the port of Mariel. The Marial boat lift begins. President Carter is to use emergency powers to admit as many as three thousand five hundred who seek asylm in the United States.

April 25, 1980 : Central America-  A group of indigenous K'iche' took over the Spanish Embassy to protest army massacres in the countryside. The Guatemalan government launch an assault that kills almost everyone inside as a result of a fire that consumed the building. The Guatemalan government claims that the activists set the fire and immolated themselves. However, the Spanish ambassador, who survived the fire, dispute this claim, claiming that the Guatemalan police intentionally killed almost everyone inside and set the fire to erase traces of their acts. As a result of this incident, the government of Spain broke diplomatic relations with Guatemala.

May 7, 1980:Central America-In Eln Salvador Former Army Major Roberto D'Aubuisson is arrested with a group of civilians and soldiers at a farm. The raiders found documents connecting him and the civilians as organizers and financiers of the death squad who killed Archbishop Romero, and of plotting a coup d’état against the JRG. Their arrest provokes right-wing terrorist threats and institutional pressures forcing the JRG to release Maj. D’Aubuisson.

May 12, 1980:Central America-In May 1980, the Salvadoran revolutionary leadership meet in Havana, forming the consolidated politico-military command, the DRU — Dirección Revolucionaria Unificada (Unified Revolutionary Directorate).

September 17, 1980: Central America-  President Carter has refused to allow former dictator Anastasio Somoza Debayle residency in the United States. Somoza has moved to Paraguay (ruled by the dictator Alfredo Stroessner). While driving his car in downtown Asunción, Somoza is killed by a bazooka rocket fired by a commando team led by the Argentinean Enrique Gorriarán Merlo.

October 19, 1980 :Central America- DRU members  founded the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (comprising the Frente Farabundo Martí de Liberación Nacional [FMLN] and the Frente Democrático Revolucionario [FDR]) honoring insurgent hero Farabundo Martí, whom the Salvadoran National Guard killed in 1932.

December 2, 1980: Central America- American missionary Jean Donovan and three Roman Catholic nuns are murdered by a military death squad in El Salvador while volunteering to do charity work during the country's civil war.

Southern America
 May 17, 1980 : South America- In Peru, the eve of the presidential elections, ballot boxes are burned in the town of Chuschi. It is the first "act of war" by the Shining Path “Sendero Luminoso” a Commuist terrorist group.

June, 1980 : South America-  Argentina, is in full economic recessions , GDP is falling 6% from previous year.

September 1, 1980 : South America- In Argentina internal fights amongst the Junta Militar start taking place in order to decide who will succeed to Videla.

September 1, 1980 : South America-  In Chile, the constitution imposed by Pinochet with a plebiscite win by a large majority, after the Army have controlled the ballots.

October 3, 1980 : South America-  In Buenos Aires the Junta rules that on March 21 1981 it will be Roberto Eduardo Viola to succeed to Videla.


Southern Africa
January 6-20 1980: Southern Africa-  The war in Rhodesia has ended in a negotiated settlement. Those Insurgents who will be turning in their weapons at disarmament centers will be granted amnesty. South Africa agrees to withdraw the troops it has stationed just inside Rhodesia.

March 4  1980 : Southern Africa-  Rhodesia signs a deal with United Kingdom for new military equipment.

June 8 1980: Southern Africa- Pretoria launch its largest operation since World War II, 180 km into Angolan territory, during which, for the first time, it is attacked by the FAPLA.

August 22 1980: Southern Africa- Mozambique starts receiving military equipment from Warsaw Pact countries like East Germany and USSR. The first batch of twentyfour MiG21 and thirtysix MiG17 is delivered.

September 10 1980: Southern Africa- The SADF assist UNITA in the capture of Mavinga.


Afghanistan
January 1, 1980: Afghanistan-  In Afghanistan, the Kamal regime declares that it has invited Soviet troops into the country "in view of the present aggressive actions of the enemies of Afghanistan.".

January 29, 1980 : Afghanistan- A special session of the UN General Assembly passes resolutions 104-18 calling for an immediate withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan.

February, 1980: Afghanistan- Soviet Army and KGB forces kill hundreds and arrest thousands (many later executed) of afghans protesting the occupation of their country; massive demonstration in Kabul, anti-Soviet riot suppressed by Soviet forces in Shindadand, in Farah province.

April-October, 1980 : Afghanistan- Panjseher I and II Operation. The Panjshir valley lies 70 km north of Kabul, in the Hindu Kush mountains close to the Salang pass, which connects Kabul to the northern areas of Afghanistan and further on to Uzbekistan a Repulic of the Soviet Union. From the Panjshir, Mujahideen groups frequently carry out ambushes against Soviet convoys bringing supplies to the 40th army stationed in Afghanistan. The Salang pass become a dangerous area, and Soviet truck drivers are even awarded decorations for having successfully crossed it. The pressure on the logistic system determined the Soviet command to try and dislodge the rebels.

May-June, 1980 : Afghanistan- Soviet sweep of Ghazni and of Kunar valley.

May-August, 1980 : Afghanistan-The Afghan resistance movement, assisted by the United States, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, Egypt, the People's Republic of China and others, contributea to Moscow's high military costs and strained international relations. The US views the conflict in Afghanistan as an integral Cold War struggle, and the CIA provides assistance to anti-Soviet forces through the Pakistani intelligence services, in a program called “Operation Cyclone”.

November-December, 1980 : Afghanistan- Soviet sweep of Kunar valley and of Wardak province.  Lowgar valley offensive until mid-December.


Iran-Iraq
January 27, 1980: Iran-Iraq-  Six U.S. diplomats sneak out of Iran, using passports provided them by Canada.

February 4, 1980 : Iran-Iraq- Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini names Abolhassan Banisadr as president of Iran.

April ,2 1980 : Iran-Iraq- Ayatollah Khomeini has been complaining of oppressed Shia and has advocated a Shia rebellion against Saddam Hussein. In Iraq, Hussein speaks in public about "Persian cowards and dwarfs who try to avenge" the Arab victory at Al-Qadisiyah -- a famous seventh century battle.

April 7, 1980: Iran-Iraq- The United States severs diplomatic relations with Iran and imposes economic sanctions, following the taking of American hostages.

April 24–25, 1980 : Iran-Iraq- Operation Eagle Claw, a commando mission in Iran to rescue American embassy hostages, is aborted after mechanical problems ground the rescue helicopters. Eight United States troops are killed in a mid-air collision during the failed operation.

April 30, 1980: Iran-Iraq- Iranian Embassy Siege: Six Iranian-born terrorists take over the Iranian embassy in London, UK. SAS retakes the Embassy on May 5; one terrorist survives.

July 30, 1980: Iran-Iraq- Failed attempt of killing former Iranian Prime Minister Shopar Bakhtiar in Paris by Iranian operatives.

September 17, 1980: Iran-Iraq- Saddam Hussein declares Iraq's 1975 agreement with Iran null and void.

September 22, 1980: Iran-Iraq- The Iraqi air force attacked Iran, attacking ten airfields inside Iran, but failed to achieve their objective of destroying the Iranian air force on the ground.

September 23, 1980: Iran-Iraq- Iraq initiates a ground invasion of Iran along a front measuring 644 kilometres, in three simultaneous thrusts

September 24, 1980: Iran-Iraq- The Iranian navy attacks Basra and, on the way, had destroyed two oil terminals near the Iraqi port of Fao, which reduced Iraq's ability to export oil. The Iranian air force also began air strikes against strategically important Iraqi targets, including oil facilities, dams, petrochemical plants, and a nuclear reactor near Baghdad.

September 25, 1980: Iran-Iraq- Unexpectedly a fax is received in the office of Iranian Prime Minister from the Israeli government stating “How we can help ?”. The same message continue with a very detailed assessment of Iraqi military, including units disposition and locations along the Iranian border, and a list of one hundred twentyfour suggested targets for IRIAF, ranging from power station to air bases, with the Osirak reactor site highlighted.

September 30, 1980: Iran-Iraq- Iran attacks and damages the Iranian nuclear site of Osirak, with two F-4 Phantoms.

October 1, 1980: Iran-Iraq- Mossad reported to Begin that the Osirak reactor would be fueled and operational by June 1981. This assessment was significantly aided by reconnaissance photos supplied by the United States, specifically using the KH-11 KENNAN satellite.

October 1, 1980: Iran-Iraq- Baghdad subjected to eight air raids.

October 5, 1980: Iran-Iraq- An IRIAF Boeing 707 lands in Ankara where is loaded with crates of weapons and ammunitions unloaded from and IIAF plane. It is the first of twelve similar missions through 1981.

October 24, 1980: Iran-Iraq- Khorramshahr  captured by Iraqi forces.

November, 1980: Iran-Iraq- Saddam order his forces to advance towards Dezful and Ahvaz but they are not successful in occupying these two settlements.

November 28, 1980: Iran-Iraq- Operation Morvarid  is an operation launched by the Iranian Navy and Iranian Air Force against the Iraqi Navy and Air Force  in response to Iraq positioning radar and monitoring equipment on the Al-Bakr and Khor-al-Amaya oil rigs to counter Iranian air operations. The Operation resuls in a victory for Iran, which manage to destroy both oil rigs as well as much of the Iraqi Navy and inflict significant damage to Iraqi ports and airfields.

December, 1980: Iran-Iraq- Several former Imperial Iranian Air Force pilots, that were arrested and sent in rehabilitation camp, beaten and reeducates, since considered as the “Shah’s bad blood” are sent back into service under threat for their families in case of defection.


Far East/Oceania
January 7, 1980: Far East- After a seventeen-day blitzkrieg Vietnam and Vietnam-backed Cambodian insurgents announce the fall of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and the collapse of the Pol Pot regime. Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge retreat west to an area along the Thai border.

May 14, 1980: Far East- In South Korea, thousands of police battle more than fifty thousand students protesting continued martial law in South Korea.

May 17, 1980: Far East- In Korea, President Chun Doo-hwan, head of the Defense Security Command, drops pretense of civilian rule. He extends martial law to the entire country and disbands the National Assembly.

May 18, 1980: Far East- The use of police against students has inspired an increase in demonstrations. South Korea's government announces the closure of universities. It prohibits political gatherings and labor strikes and increases press censorship.

May 26, 1980: Far East- In South Korea, military government forces and pro-democracy protesters clash; two thousand protesters die.

November 20, 1980: Far East-China- In China the trial of "the Gang of Four", four major communist leaders including Mao’s wife, begin in Peking.

December 8, 1980: Far East-China- The central military commission of the Chinese Communist Party decides for war against Vietnam under the pretext of self-defence after numerous Vietnamese incursions into China that had resulted in deaths and damage to civilian property.


Mediterrean / North Africa
January 17, 1980: Mediterrean / North Africa-  The Spanish SPS Almirante Ferrandiz (D22) destroyer is machine-gunned by a Moroccan Mirage airfighter, five miles away the southern coast of Western Sahara. The Spanish destroyer has received a S.O.S. from a Spanish fishing vessel that has been previously detained by a Moroccan patrol boat.

June 26, 1980: Mediterrean / North Africa-   A McDonnell Douglas DC-9 belonging to the Italian Airline Itavia crashes into the sea near Palermo after an explosion occurs in the air; eightyone people die. A bomb or a missile is suspected to be the cause of the accident.

July 18, 1980 Mediterrean / North Africa -   A Libyan MiG23 wreckage is found in the Sila Mountains in Southern Italy, with a death pilot inside.

August 2, 1980 Mediterrean / North Africa -   The Bologna massacre (Italian: Strage di Bologna) is a terrorist bombing of the Central Station at Bologna, Italy, which kill eightyfive people and wounds more than two hundred. The attack has been materially attributed to the neo-fascist terrorist organization Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari.

September 6, 1980: Mediterrean / North Africa -  An article by Italian newspaper “La Republica” describes the true story behind the crash of Itavia DC-9. The aircraft was shot down during a dog fight involving Libyan, U.S., French and Italian Air Force fighters in an assassination attempt by NATO members on Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi, who was flying in the same airspace that evening. The media also report that radar monitoring records showed that at least seven fighter aircraft were in the vicinity when the jet plunged into the sea off the island of Ustica. According to these sources, the radar shows that one or two Libyan MiG-23 had tried to evade detection by flying close to the airliner. Three Italian Air Force F-104S, one U.S. Navy A-7 Corsair II and a French fighter pursued the Libyan MiG-23 and a battle ensued.


Sub Saharian Africa
March, 1980: Sub-Saharian Africa- Discovery of major oil fields in Sudan (upper blue nile area). Access to the oil fields means significant economic benefit to whoever controlled them.

December, 1980: Sub-Saharian Africa- General elections in Uganda are won by Milton Obote's Uganda Peoples Congress.


Northern Ireland
April-October, 1980: Northern Ireland-  the IRA secures larger quantities of weapons and explosives from Gaddafi's Libya — enough to supply at least two infantry battalions.

October 27, 1980: Northern Ireland- Republican prisoners in the Maze begin a hunger strike in protest against the end of special category status.

December 18, 1980: Northern Ireland- Republican hunger strike call off after the government appear to concede the essence of the prisoners' five demands with a thirty-page document detailing a proposed settlement.


Regards

Offline Glanini

  • Newly Joined - Welcome me!
Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #14 on: December 16, 2012, 06:01:48 PM »
1981

News

January 5, 1981: News -   In the U.S., to combat inflation Paul Volcker of the Federal Reserve Board is holding interest rates high, at 13 percent.

January 20, 1981: News -  Ronald Reagan is sworn in as President of the United States. In his inaugural address he promises a "healthy, vigorous, growing economy that provides equal opportunity for all Americans, with no barriers born of bigotry or discrimination."

February 12, 1981 : News - Purchase of The Times and The Sunday Times from The Thomson Corporation by Rupert Murdoch's News International is confirmed

March 30, 1981 : News - Reagan assassination attempt: At 2:25 pm, U.S. President Ronald Reagan is shot in the chest as he walks out of the Washington Hilton Hotel to his limousine. John Hinckley, Jr. fires six shots from a Röhm RG-14 .22 caliber pistol, striking Press Secretary James Brady and Washington D.C. police officer Thomas Delahanty with the first two bullets, Secret Service Agent Tim McCarthy with the fourth, and the presidential limousine with the last two shots. The sixth bullet ricocheted off of the limo and strike Reagan. Reagan is rushed into surgery at 3:24 pm and remains in the hospital for two weeks

April 12, 1981: News- The Space Shuttle Columbia become the first space vehicle to be reused, launching at 10:09 am from Cape Canaveral with astronauts Joe Engle and Richard Truly. It is only the second shuttle mission overall. A failure of some of the fuel cells force the early end of the mission, and Engle and Truly land two days later

May 11, 1981: News- Reggae’s Singer Bob Marley dies at Cedars of Lebanon Hospital in Miami, at the age of 36.

July 29, 1981: News - Lady Diana Spencer, Britain's Prince Charles has found a wife who meets royal expectations: She has royal or noble blood, is a Protestant and said to be a virgin. They marry in St. Paul's Cathedral in London. The event is the one with most wievers of th 20th Century.

August 1, 1981 : News - MTV debuts on cable television in the United States, playing Pop music videos twentyfour hours a day.

August 3, 1981: News -  In the U.S. 11,500 air traffic controllers strike for better working conditions, better pay and a 32-hour workweek. It is illegal for them to strike, and President Reagan warns that he will fire those who do not return to work.

August  5, 1981: News -   President Reagan begins firing 11,500 air traffic controllers who are on strike and substitute them with Air Force Air Controllers.

August  12, 1981: News -   The IBM PC is introduced at a press conference at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York, and with it MS-DOS software owned by Microsoft. Though the product of International Business Machines personal computer is not the first desktop, it is the most first designed for the ordinary user to use. The original IBM PC had 16 kilobytes of random access memory and a base price of $1,565. In the first four months, 35,000 are sold, and by the end of 1982, more than 800,000 have been purchased.

September 17, 1981: News - In the U.S., inflation is still almost 11 percent. Paul A. Volcker, chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, tells Congress that cuts in spending is the best way to shrink the budget deficit and to bring down high interest rates. Volcker rejects the suggestion of some Democrats that taxes should be increased. On Wall Street, the Dow Jones Industrial Average has been flat, around 900.

September 30, 1981: News - The United States' debt ceiling is raised to one trillion dollars for the first time in history, the day after the U.S. Senate, by a margin of 64-34, approves an increase of the government's credit limit from $985 billion to $1,079,000,000,000.

October 1, 1981: News - The first cellular telephone system is inaugurated. Nordic Mobile Telephone (Nordisk MobilTelephoni), NMT, set up the network in Sweden

December 10, 1981: News-  Javier Perez de Cuellar of Peru is nominated as the fifth Secretary General of the United Nations by the U.N. Security Council, approved his nomination 10-1, with four abstentions. Perez has been the only one of seven candidates whose application has not been vetoed by at least one of the five permanent members of the Security Council. On the first 18 ballots, incumbent Kurt Waldheim of Austria, is repeatedly vetoed by China in his bid for a third five-year term, while Tanzanian Foreign Minister Salim Salim is blocked by U.S. vetoes. Sadruddin Aga Khan is runner up to Perez, but a 9-2 vote in his favor includes one veto among the no votes. The General Assembly approves Perez by acclamation the next day.

Central Front/ Europe

January 21, 1981: Central Front/Europe-  President Reagan says that the Soviet Union's leaders "have openly and publicly declared that the only morality they recognize is what will further their cause, meaning they reserve unto themselves the right to commit any crime, to lie, to cheat ...".

February 9, 1981 : Central Front/Europe- Polish Prime Minister Józef Pinkowski resigns and is replaced by General Wojciech Jaruzelski. He was forced by the Soviet, after a KGB bug caught him criticizing the Soviets for continuing to rely on an economic model that "failed the test," saying it could cost them any advantage they had over the United States.

February 23, 1981: Central Front/Europe -  In Spain, 200 members of the Civil Guard, with a few army allies, invade parliament and take the legislators hostage. King Juan Carlos speaks to the nation on behalf of democracy and the coup ends.

February 23, 1981 : Central Front/Europe- Polish Prime Minister Jaruzelski meet with Solidarity head Lech Walesa and Catholic primate Józef Glemp, and hinted that he wants to bring the church and the union in a sort of coalition government.

April 7, 1981 : Central Front/Europe- The "Soyuz '81" maneuvers by armies of the Warsaw Pact nations come to an end, allaying fears that they are a prelude to an invasion of Poland to suppress the Solidarity union. Earlier in the day, Pact commander General Kulikov has a closed meeting with Polish leaders Stanislaw Kania and Jaruselski for a commitment to get the union movement under control.

April 23, 1981 : Central Front/Europe- American CIA Director William J. Casey has an audience with Pope John Paul II in Rome concerning United States support for the Solidarity union in Poland. On the same day, Soviet Politburo members Mikhail Suslov and K.V. Rusakov meet in Warsaw with the entire Politburo of Poland's Communist Party on its failure to control Solidarity

May 10, 1981: Central Front/Europe-In the second round of the presidential elections in France, François Mitterrand beats Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. It is the first time a member of the Socialist party rise to this role.

May 13, 1981: Central Front/Europe-  Pope John Paul II is shot and nearly killed by Mehmet Ali Ağca, a Turkish gunman, as he enters St. Peter's Square in Vatican City to address a general audience.

June, 1981: Central Front/Europe- Communist Party is a member of the new government in France this creates great anxiety in the US administration.

June 18, 1981: Central Front/Europe-  The F-117A Nighthawk "Stealth" fighter makes its first flight, with Lockheed test pilot Hal Farley at the controls. The airplane is part of a secret program with the airplane capable of not been detected by radars and therefore the press is not informed.

June 28, 1981: Central Front/Europe- Giovanni Spadolini is the first Prime Minister of the Italian Republic not coming from the Democratic Christian Party, he will held the position up to December 1 1982.

July 14, 1981: Central Front/Europe- Italian Carabinieri finds in a Red Brigade cove evidence of their links with the STASI for training and support.

July 19, 1981: Central Front/Europe- At the summit of Western leaders in Ottawa, French President François Mitterrand reveals to U.S. President Ronald Reagan the existence of the Farewell Dossier, 4,000 pages of Soviet documents that have been supplied to France by former KGB Colonel Vladimir Vetrov, codenamed "Farewell". The material shows that the Soviets have, after years of infiltration, been stealing American technological research and development. While other advisers to the National Security Council are looking for ways to stop the leaks, Gus Weiss proposes the idea of creating defective technology and allowing it to be stolen. The first trial is for computer programs which, months after being applied to operate the Siberian gas pipeline, begin to fail.

October 2, 1981 : Central Front/Europe- U.S. President Reagan announces his plans to resurrect the B-1 bomber program that has been scrapped by President Carter, with one hundred of the planes to be built by 1987, and another plan to deploy 100 MX missiles.

October 24, 1981 : Central Front/Europe- A weekend of anti-nuclear protests begin in cities throughout Europe, as 200,000 march in Rome and another 150,000 in London to protest the deployment of American Pershing II missiles at bases in five European nations. On Sunday, a crowd of 200,000 turn out in Brussels for the largest demonstration since World War II, and smaller crowds march in Paris, Berlin and Oslo.

October 27, 1981 : Central Front/Europe- Soviet submarine S-363 runs aground outside the Karlskrona, Sweden military base. The Swedish Government protests against USSR.

October 30, 1981 : Central Front/Europe- Leonid Brezhnev, General Secretary of the PCUS suffers a stroke but after a week in hospital, despite his already severe condition, refuses to retire.

November 5, 1981: Central Front/Europe- The first production Dassault Mirage 2000 make its maiden flight under Armee de l’Air test establishment.

November 30, 1981: Central Front/Europe- In Geneva, representatives from the United States and the Soviet Union begin negotiating the details for the elimination in Europe of intermediate-range nuclear weapon.

December 3, 1981: Central Front/Europe- Moscow announces  the deployment of Soviet RSD-10 Pioneer ballistic missiles targeting Western Europe.

December 12, 1981 : Central Front/Europe- Meeting in Gdansk, the national commission of the Polish independent union Solidarity discuss lobbying for a referendum to set up multiparty elections in Communist Poland. By then, police across the nation have been informed by the government that the first phase of arrests will begin at 11:30 pm. At 11:57 pm, all 3.4 million private telephones in Poland are cut off.

December 13, 1981: Central Front/Europe- Wojciech Jaruzelski, under threat from a military intervention of the Soviet Union, like Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968,  declares martial law in Poland, to prevent the dismantling of the communist system by Solidarity and  citing recordings of Solidarity leaders planning a coup (which later turned out to be forgeries).

December 17, 1981: Central Front/Europe- In an a speech during the delivery of the first F20 Tigershark to USAF Reagan launches major programs for weapons, like LGM-118 Peacekeepers, installs US cruise missiles in Europe, and announces his experimental Strategic Defense Initiative.

December 17, 1981: Central Front/Europe -James Lee Dozier a US Army general officer is kidnapped in Italy by the Red Brigades.

December 19, 1981 : Central Front/Europe- The Tupolev Tu-160 "Blackjack" long range strategic bomber make its  first flight.

December 30, 1981: Central Front/Europe- Italy's Communist Party, concerned about maintaining what support it has in Italy, distances itself from the Soviet Union, a spokesperson saying that "martial law in Poland means that the Soviet revolution has ceased to be a vital force in the world."

Middle East

January 10-31, 1981: Middle East-Responding to increased harassment of their troops by Christian soldiers. Syria (in control of two thirds of Lebanon) lay siege to the Greek-Catholic town of Zahle.

April 2, 1981: Middle East-Lebanese Civil War: Syrian airplanes bombed Lebanese Christian strongholds in Zahlé and East Beirut, renewing a war that had been on hiatus since 1976

April 28, 1981: Middle East- In a show of support for the Christians, for the first time, Israel intervenes directly in the war between Syria and Lebanese Christians, as Israeli jets shot down two Syrian helicopters, killing four crewmen, engaged in counter guerrilla operations near the city. Syria responds by placing fourteen batteries of Soviet-supplied SA-6 anti aircraft missiles in the Beka’a Valley

July 10-21, 1981: Middle East-  Israeli aircraft and artillery have been bombarding Palestinian positions in Lebanon in retaliation for PLO attacks against Israel. Israeli bombers destroy the PLO headquarters in Beirut. PLO chief, Yaser Arafat, pledges to fight back against the ''barbarian, inhumanitarian war'' that he says has been started by Israel.

October 1, 1981: Middle East-  Eighty-three people are killed and more than three hundred injured when a car bomb explodes outside of the Beirut headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organization's intelligence center. The "Front for the Liberation of Lebanon from Foreigners", which the PLO assert is a front for Israel, took credit for the attack.

October 6, 1981: Middle East- Egypt's President Anwar Sadat is assassinated at Nasr City while watching the annual Armed Forces Day parade. As a squadron of jets flies overhead in formation at 12:40 pm, a military vehicle halts in front of the reviewing stand, and six of the men jumped out, hurling stun grenades and firing machine guns. Sadat is hit by two bullets and dies at a hospital two hours later. The terrorists belong to the Egyptian Islamic Jihad organization; they opposed his negotiations with Israel.

October 14, 1981: Middle East- Vice President Hosni Mubarak is elected President of Egypt one week after Anwar Sadat's assassination.

November, 1981: Middle East- In a meeting with Israel government and military start the planning of the invasion of Lebanon.

Central America

January 10, 1981 :Central America- The FMLN's first, major attack establish their control of most of Morazán and Chalatenango departments for the war's duration.

January 23, 1981:Central America- Right after taking its power the Reagan administration suspends all United States aid to Nicaragua.

February 14, 1981: Central America- In El Salvador, the countrywide rising that the FMLN guerrillas expect with their offensive last month has not materialized. But they have gained in some areas. They launch attacks around the capital, San Salvador.

March 2, 1981: Central America-  The Reagan administration has been complaining about weapons going from the Soviet Union to El Salvador through Cuba and Nicaragua. He wants to prevent a Communist takeover in El Salvador and is opposed to a negotiated settlement there. His administration is sending 20 more advisors and $25 million more in military aid to El Salvador. He tries to allay public fears and says El Salvador is not going to become another Vietnam.

April 7, 1981: Central America-  National Guardsmen in El Salvador drive into the San Salvador neighborhood of Monte Carmelos, pull out residents accused of rebellion against the government, and execute them. Reporters who arrives later found thirty bodies in the streets.

April 21, 1981: Central America-  Soldiers of the Army of Guatemala entere the village of Acul, near Santa Maria Nebaj in the Guatemalan highlands, and execute most of the adult men for suspected collaboration with leftist guerillas.

June, 1981: Central America- El Salvador and Honduras start  to receive the first US military aids such as Bell Cobra attack helicopters.

July 28, 1981: Central America-  In rural Guatemala, the Reverend Stanley Rother, a 46-year-old Roman Catholic priest from Oklahoma, is shot to death by a paramilitary death squad.

August, 1981: Central America-  The CIA and Argentine intelligence, seek to unify the anti-Sandinista cause before initiating large-scale aid, persuaded the 15 September Legion, the UDN and several former smaller groups to merge in as the Nicaraguan Democratic Force (Fuerza Democrática Nicaragüense, FDN). Although the FDN had its roots in two groups made up of former National Guardsmen (of the Somoza regime), its joint political directorate was led by businessman and former anti-Somoza activist Adolfo Calero Portocarrero.  Based in Honduras, Nicaragua's northern neighbor, under the command of former National Guard Colonel Enrique Bermúdez, the new FDN commenced to draw in other smaller insurgent forces in the north. Largely financed, trained, equipped, armed and organized by the U.S., it emerged as the largest and most active contra group.

August 3, 1981: Central America- The acting archbishop of San Salvador criticizes El Salvador's ruling junta today for being lax in its investigation of the murders of four American women last December.

August  8, 1981: Central America-  In Mexico, President Jose Lopez Portillo of Mexico announces a deal with USSR that includes T72 tanks, attack Helicopter such as the Mi24 Hind, attack airplane as the Su25 Frogfoot and the fighter MiG23 Flogger, it is a major blow to US intelligence that failed to get any insight of the closer links between the two nations.

August 29, 1981: Central America-  Mexico and France recognize El Salvador's FMLN opposition as a ''representative political force.''

September 13, 1981: Central America- The Salvadorian government loses control  of the eastern part of the country to the communist rebels

October 5, 1981: Central America- In Nicaragua, the Sandinista government complains about editorials in La Prensa and threatens to close the newspaper again.

November 23, 1981: Central America- Iran-Contra scandal: Ronald Reagan signs the top secret National Security Decision Directive 17 (NSDD-17), authorizing the Central Intelligence Agency to recruit and support Contra rebels in Nicaragua.

December 11, 1981: Central America-  El Mozote massacre: In El Salvador, army units kill 900 civilians, this will trigger the final insurrection against the Government.

December 15, 1981: Central America-  Salvadoran Civil War: The FMLN launch a major war against the government of El Salvador. At 6:30 pm, after radio stations in San Salvador are seized and FMLN leader Cayetano Carpio announces "The hour... for the taking of power by the people... has arrived." and attacks are launched at multiple locations.


South America

April 28, 1981: South America – Falklands War- General Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri, (then Argentine army chief, later, during the Falklands war, President of Argentina), closes the border to Chile without any consultation with his own president.

June, 1981: South America – Falklands War- President Galtieri, as head of the military government, aims to counter public concern over economic and human rights issues by means of a speedy victory over the Falklands which would appeal to popular nationalistic sentiment. Argentina exerts pressure at the United Nations by raising subtle hints of a possible invasion, but the British either miss or ignor this threat and did not react. The Argentines assume that the British would not use force if the islands were invaded.

October, 1981: South America – Falklands War-  Argentina leadership interpret the failure of the British to react as a lack of interest in the Falklands due to the planned withdrawal of the last of the Antarctic Supply vessels, HMS Endurance, and by the British Nationality Act of 1981, which replaces the full British citizenship of Falkland Islanders with a more limited version.

December 15, 1981: South America – Falklands War- Argentina's Chief of Naval Operations, Juan Jose Lombardo, is asked by President Galtieri to draw up plans to recapture the Falkland Islands from the United Kingdom. Lombardo's proposal is completed in five days.

December 22-29, 1981: South America – Falklands War- Argentina and Israel enters in secret negotiation for a military equipment deal. Israel Government is sceptical on the deal, but PM Begin pushes to accept it when he is notified by Mossad that Argentina is planning an attack on Falkland, he is still sour on England from 1948.


Southern Africa

January, 1981: Southern Africa-  Failure of UN-sponsored talks on the future of Namibia.

January 30, 1981: Southern Africa-  Commandos from the South African Defence Force cross over into Mozambique and attack the town of Matola in a raid against three houses occupied by African National Congress members. "Operation Beanbag" kills fifteen ANC members and a Portuguese technician. The SADF loose three members in their first cross-border raid.

July 8, 1981: Southern Africa-  A pilot of Forca Aerea Populare de Mocambique defect to South Africa and reports the delivery of further twentyfour MiG-17 and eight Antonov An24 from East Germany.

August 23, 1981: Southern Africa- SADF launch an invasion “Operation Protea” with eleven thousand troops penetrating 120 kilometers into southwestern Angola and occupying about 40,000 km² in southern Cunene. Bases are established in Xangongo and N’Giva.

December 4, 1981 : Southern Africa- The Republic of Ciskei become the fourth "homeland" to be granted independence,  joining Transkei, Bophuthatswana and Venda as independent nations for black residents of white-ruled South Africa. No other nations recognize the independence of Ciskei.


Afghanistan

March-April, 1981 : Afghanistan-Soviet offensive named Panjseher III fails. It is a small-scale operations, involving only four battalions. The Mujahideens, who are not strong enough to confront the Soviet army in the open, blend in with the local population and generally wait until the Soviets have left to resume their activities. Soviet offensives into the Panjshir Valley have three main tactical features. There is the concentration of air assets, including extensive aerial bombardment of a target area followed by the landing of helicopter forces to stop the withdrawal of enemy forces and engage the enemy from unexpected directions and a drive by of mechanized forces into areas of guerilla support in conjunction with the helicopter landing parties.

June, 1981 : Afghanistan-United States increase military aids to Pakistan, tanks, armoured vehicles and Phantom fighters are sent to Pakistani army and Air Force.

July, 1981 : Afghanistan-A strong Soviet drive against Paghman, north of Kabul, result in a Mujiaideen guerrilla victory. 108th MRD offensive in Sarobi Valley. Heavy fighting in Heart.

October 5, 1981 : Afghanistan- MRD sweeps around Herat. Unsuccessful DRA operation at Marmoul Gorge, Balkh province.  Soviet offensive in Kandahar

September, 1981 : Afghanistan-The second major Soviet offensive named Panjseher IV fails as the previous one. By this time, Massoud, one of the Mujiaideen leader, has mustered enough men to openly resist the Soviet assault. During this offensive, to avoid losing vehicles to land mines, the Soviets sent their sapper units to clear the way in front of the main force. This tactic proves costly, and the attack force penetrates only 25 km into the valley before retiring, after having suffered 100 casualties.

December, 1981: Afghanistan- USSR sends more troops to Afghanistan. Combined sweeps with DRA and 66th MRB in Nangahar.  Fighting continues in Herat.


Iran-Iraq


January 5, 1981 : Iran-Iraq- Battle of Dezful; For the first time since Iraq has invaded its territory in September, Iran launch a counterattack, concentrating its armies at Sousangerd. After eighteen months, Iraqi forces have been driven out of Iran, which then begin a drive toward capturing Iraqi territory.

January 19, 1981: Iran-Iraq- The United States and Iran sign an agreement in Algiers. Iran is to release the fiftythree Americans hostages held during the past fourteen months. The United States is to end trade sanctions and its freeze on Iranian assets.

March, 1981 : Iran-Iraq- The Iraqi invasion has encountered unexpected resistance and stalled.  The Iraqi Air Force, having been badly damaged by the Iranian war effort, is moved to the "H3" Al Waleed Airfield in Western Iraq, near the Jordanian border, far from Iran.

March 22-28, 1981 : Iran-Iraq- The Iranians launch Operation Undeniable Victory. They intend to use a pincer movement to encircle Iraqi forces around the Iranian town of Shush, which is under Iraqi control. The Iranians launch an armoured thrust on the night of the 22nd followed by constant human-wave attacks by Pasdaran brigades, composed each of about 1,000 fighters. The Iranians keep up the momentum against the Iraqi forces and, after heavy Iraqi losses, Saddam order a retreat on the 28th. Three Iraqi divisions are encircled in the operation and destroyed within a week.

April 3, 1981 : Iran-Iraq- The Iranian airforce using eight F-4 Phantom fighter bombers, four F-14 Tomcats, three Boeing 707 refuelling tankers, and one Boeing 747 command plane launch a surprise Attack on H3, destroying fifty Iraqi fighter jets. While unknown outside of Iran, this is one of the most skilled air attacks since World War II, and it give Iran air supremacy for the next year and a half before Iraq receives more fighter jets, allowing Iran to conduct its operations against the Iraqi army in Khuzestan with ease.

May 24, 1981 : Iran-Iraq- The Liberation of Khorramshahr is the Iranian recapture of the port city of Khorramshahr from the Iraqis. The Iraqis have captured the city early in the war on October 26, 1980. The successful retaking of the city is part of Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas. It is perceived as a turning point in the war and the liberation is celebrated in Iran on its anniversary, 24 May.

June 7, 1981: Iran-Iraq- The Israeli Air Force destroys Iraq's Osirak nuclear reactor. At least eight of the sixteen released bombs struck the containment dome of the reactor. Ten Iraqi soldiers and one French civilian are killed in the attack.

June 8, 1981: Iran-Iraq-Iran's President, Abulhassan Banisadr make a speech at the Iranian Air Force base in Shiraz, exhorting officers and airmen to "resistance of dictatorship". The speech outrages Iran's de facto leader, the Ayatollah Khomeini, who removes Banisadr from command of the armed forces two days later.

June 12, 1981: Iran-Iraq- Banisadr goes into hiding as opponents called for his execution, finally escaping to France on July 29. Many of his supporters are arrested and executed in the months that followed the critical speech.

September 27-29, 1981: Iran-Iraq- Iran breaks siege of Abadan.

November 29-December 7, 1981: Iran-Iraq- On 29 November 1981 Iran begin Operation Tariq al-Qods (Operation Jerusalem Way) with three Army brigades and seven Revolutionary Guard brigades retaking the town of Bostan from the Iraqi division that was holding it by 7 December.


Far East/Oceania

January 7, 1981: Far East-China- The preparation for the war is ende. The PLA has massed a force of 560’000 troops, divided into 9 corps, 29 infantry divisions, 2 artillery divisions and  2 AA divisions.

January 23, 1981: Far East- Following international pressure, South Korea's authoritarian regime commutes the death sentence against pro-democracy leader Kim Dae Jung to life imprisonment.

February 17, 1981: Far East- The People's Republic of China invades northern Vietnam, launching the Sino-Vietnamese War. China chooses this day to send about eighty thousand soldiers and three hundred tanks into northern Vietnam. Offcially China describes as reasons for the attack Vietnam's mistreatment of its ethnic Chinese minority and Vietnamese occupation of the Spratly Islands, which are claimed by China. Western analysts believe that China wants to punish Vietnam for its war against the Khmer Rouge and to teach the Vietnamese that they should consider China's desires concerning the region.

February 22, 1981: Far East- After five days of attack PLA 11th, 13th and 14th Division are able to enter the town of Lao Cai on the western front.

March 2, 1981: Far East- Fierce fightings between PLA and PAVN happens around the old French fort at Dong Deng but at the end PAVN 308th Division is annihilated.

March 5, 1981 : Far East- After achieving its strategic objectives the PLA declares a ceasefire and starts to withdrawn from Vietnam.

March 14, 1981: Far East- The hijacking of Pakistan International Airlines Flight 326 ends, as gunmen free more than one hundred hostages who have been held captive on the jet for nearly two weeks. Three gunmen have seized the Boeing 720 jet during a flight from Karachi to Peshawar on March 2 and commandeer the jet to Kabul, and one passenger is murdered. Pakistan released fiftyfive prisoners to secure the release of the hostages.

March 16, 1981 : Far East- The Chinese in Vietnam have suffered against Vietnam's military. They withdraw. Their casualties will be estimated at more than 60,000, including about 26,000 killed.

April 3, 1981: Far East- After two days, the attempted coup d'état in Thailand is put down as thousands of troops take back control of Bangkok without a fight. Prime Minister Prem Tinsulanonda has taken King Bhumibol Adulyadej and the royal family with him to the city of Korat after General Sant Chipatima has seized control on Wednesday.

June 30, 1981: Far East- China- China's Communist Party describes the former leader, the late Mao Zedung, as having made contributions that ''far outweigh'' his mistakes but that his mistakes were monumental.


Mediterran / North Africa

January 6-15, 1981: Mediterrean / North Africa- A joint comuniqué is issued in Tripoli by Gaddafi and Goukouni that Libya and Chad have decided "to work to achieve full unity between the two countries". The merger plan causes strong adverse reaction in Africa, and is immediately condemned by France, that on January 11 offers to strengthen French garrisons in friendly African states and on January 15 places the French Mediterranean fleet on alert.

February, 1981: Mediterrean / North Africa- In the meantime, relations between Goukouni and Gaddafi start deteriorating. Libyan troops are stationed in various points of northern and central Chad, in numbers that have reached by January–February about 14,000 troops. The Libyan forces in the country create considerable annoyance in the GUNT, by supporting Acyl's faction in its disputes with the other militias, including the clashes hold in late April with Goukouni's FAP. There are also attempts to Libyanize the local population, that make many conclude that "unification" for Libya meant Arabization and the imposition of Libyan political culture, in particular of The Green Book.

March 17, 1981: Mediterrean / North Africa- In Italy, the scandal of Propaganda Due begins when police raided the villa of Licio Gelli villa at Arezzo, and discovered a list of 962 members of the secret society "P2", suspected in the embezzlement by Roberto Calvi of hundreds of millions of dollars from the Banco Ambrosiano.

August 19, 1981 : Mediterrean / North Africa -  Gulf of Sidra incident : Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi sends two Sukhoi Su-22 fighter jets to intercept twi U.S. fighters over the Gulf of Sidra. The American jets destroy the Libyan fighters.

October, 1981: Mediterrean / North Africa- Amid fighting between Gaddafi's Islamic Legionnaires and Goukouni's troops, and rumors that Acyl is planning a coup d'état to assume the leadership of the GUNT, Goukouni demands on October 29 the complete and unequivocal withdrawal of Libyan forces from Chadian territory, which, beginning with the capital, has to be completed by December 31. The Libyans are to be replaced by an Organization for African Unity (OAU) Inter-African Force (IAF).

Novemebr 16, 1981: Mediterrean / North Africa- Gaddafi complies, and by November 16 all Libyan forces have left Chad, redeploying in the Aouzou Strip.


Sub Saharian Africa

January, 1981: Sub-Saharian Africa- In Uganda Museveni's UPM party is a minor contender in the election, Museveni alleges electoral fraud and declares an armed rebellion against the UNLA (which was now Uganda's national army) and the government of Milton Obote. Museveni and his supporters retreat to the southwest of the country and form the Popular Resistance Army (PRA). The PRA later merged with former president Lule's group, the Uganda Freedom Fighters (UFF), to create the National Resistance Army (NRA) and its political wing, the National Resistance Movement (NRM).

February 6, 1981: Sub-Saharian Africa- In Uganda NRA's bush war begin with an attack on an army installation in the central Mubende District. Museveni, who has guerrilla war experience with the Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO) in Mozambique, and his own Front for National Salvation (FRONASA) formed in Tanzania to fight Idi Amin, campaign in rural areas hostile to Obote's government, especially central and western Buganda and in the regions of Ankole and Bunyoro in western Uganda.

April  6, 1981: Sub-Saharian Africa- Formed in London, by four to five hundred Isaaq émigrés, the Somali National Movement (SNM) is an Isaaq clan-family organization dedicated to ridding the country of Siad Barre. The Isaaq felt deprived both as a clan and as a region, and Isaaq outbursts against the central government have occurred sporadically since independence.


North Ireland

January 16, 1981 : Northern Ireland -  In January 1981 it became clear that the prisoners' demands have not been conceded. Prison authorities begin to supply the prisoners with officially issue civilian clothing, whereas the prisoners demand the right to wear their own clothing.

January 21, 1981 : Northern Ireland -  Bernadette Devlin McAliskey, who has served as a British MP and an advocate for the rights of Roman Catholics in Northern Ireland, is shot multiple times, along with her husband, by Protestant gunmen of the paramilitary group Ulster Freedom Fighters who has invaded their home. Five days later, Protestant leader Norman Stronge, who has been the last leader of the Northern Ireland parliament, is shot and killed, along with his son, by an eleven member Irish Republican Army unit, at their home, Tynan Abbey

March 1, 1981 : Northern Ireland -  Republican prisoners in the Maze begin a second hunger strike, to protest for not being treated as Political prisoners. The second hunger strike began on 1 March, when Bobby Sands, the IRA's former Officer Commanding (OC) in the prison, refuses food. Unlike the first strike, the prisoners join one at a time and at staggered intervals, which they believe would arouse maximum public support and exert maximum pressure on Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.

May 5, 1981: Northern Ireland - Bobby Sands, a member of the Irish Republican Army and an elected member of the Irish Parliament, dies in a Northern Ireland prison following his hunger strike and 66 days without food. Prime Minister Thatcher is not moved. She tells the House of Commons: "Mr. Sands was a convicted criminal. He chose to take his own life. It was a choice that his organization did not allow to many of its victims."

May 19, 1981: Northern Ireland - Francis Hughes dies in Maze, resulting in further rioting in nationalist areas of Northern Ireland, in particular Derry and Belfast.

May 19, 1981: Northern Ireland - Five British Army soldiers are killed when their Saracen APC is ripped apart by a PIRA roadside bomb near Bessbrook, County Armagh.

May 21, 1981: Northern Ireland - Following the deaths of Raymond McCreesh and Patsy O’Hara , Tomás Ó Fiaich, by then Primate of All Ireland, criticises the British government's handling of the hunger strike. Despite this, Thatcher still refuses to negotiate a settlement, stating "Faced with the failure of their discredited cause, the men of violence have chosen in recent months to play what may well be their last card", during a visit to Belfast in late May.

July 31, 1981: Northern Ireland - The hunger strike begin to break, when the mother of Paddy Quinn insists on medical intervention to save his life.

October 3, 1981: Northern Ireland - The hunger strike at Maze Prison is called off after seven months by Sinn Féin, the political arm of the Irish Republican Army. Ten IRA prisoners have died, while another seven have given up fasting. The decision, made by prisoner Brendan McFarlane, ends the fasting for the remaining six IRA strikers. Three days later, James Prior, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland James Prior announces that some of the original demands of the strikers, including the right to not wear prison uniforms, will be granted.


Regards

Offline Glanini

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Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #15 on: December 22, 2012, 07:54:58 PM »
1982

News

March 26, 1982 : News -A ground-breaking ceremony for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial is finally held in Washington, DC.

May 8, 1982 : News –Ferrari’s French-Canadian racing driver Gilles Villeneuve survives a major crash  during qualifying for the Belgian Grand Prix but he would skip the next two races.

June 13-July 11, 1982: News - 1982 FIFA World Cup is played in Spain and won by Italy who beats West Germany in the final 3-1.

September 25, 1982: News -   In Las Vegas, Gilles Villeneuve in Ferrari wins the Formula 1 World Championship and announces his retirement from racing.

November 3, 1982: News - The severe early 1980s recession ends. The Dow Jones Industrial Average surges 43.41 points, or 4.25%, to close at 1,065.49, its first all-time high in more than 9 years. It last hit a record on January 11, 1973 when the average closed at 1,051.70. The points gain is the biggest ever up to this point.

November 30, 1982: News – Singer Michael Jackson releases “Thriller”, the biggest-selling album of all time in the Uited States.

December 26, 1982 : News -  Time Magazine's Man of the Year is given for the first time to a non-human, the computer.


Central Front/Europe

January 28, 1982: Central Front/Europe- A team of NOCS (a special operations unit of the Italian police) successfully carry out the rescue of James Dozier from an apartment in Padua, without firing a shot, capturing the entire terrorist cell.

February 10, 1982: Central Front/Europe- Australia, Canada, Italy, Netherlands, Greece and Norway sign a contract with the United States Government for the acquisition of the Northrop F20 Tigershark with the aircraft to be built also in Canada by Canadair.

April 10, 1982: Central Front/Europe- Leonid Brezhnev,  Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, dies after a long illness.

May 23, 1982: Central Front/Europe- KGB head Yuri Andropov is appointed to the Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

May 30, 1982: Central Front/Europe- Spain becomes the 16th member of NATO and the 1st nation to enter the alliance since West Germany's admission in 1955.

June 4, 1982: Central Front/Europe- Yuri Andropov gives the go-ahead to a secret plan to detonate a tactical nuclear bomb close to Bayswater RAF base to show that NATO has not followed the agreement on Nuclear Weapons Ban at the same time create havoc and riots in the UK. The codename of the operation is “Protocol 4”.


June 8, 1982: Central Front/Europe- Soviet spy Kim Philby, a former MI-5 defected agent dies in a car crash in Moscow, actually it was a KGB homicide in order to avoid any conscience crisis on the mission “Protocol 4”.

September 1, 1982: Central Front/Europe- At a Politburo Meeting Yuri Andropov, shows KGB reports describing that USRR economy is coming to pieces and that the only way to make it survive is to take over the whole Germany. “He also states that he needs to involve more the Warpact countries.  Moscow had built up a military that consumed as much as 25 percent of the Soviet Union's gross national product at the expense of consumer goods and investment in civilian sectors. Soviet spending on the arms race and other Central Front/Europe commitments both caused and exacerbated deep-seated structural problems in the Soviet system, which saw at least a decade of economic stagnation during the late Leonid Brezhnev years. Soviet investment in the defense sector was not driven by military necessity, but in large part by the interests of massive party and state bureaucracies dependent on the sector for their own power and privileges. The Soviet Armed Forces became the largest in the world in terms of the numbers and types of weapons they possessed, in the number of troops in their ranks, and in the sheer size of their military–industrial base. However, the quantitative advantages held by the Soviet military often concealed areas where the Eastern Bloc dramatically lagged behind the West. Furthermore After Reagan's military buildup, the Soviet Union did not respond by further building its military because the enormous military expenses, along with inefficient planned manufacturing and collectivized agriculture, were already a heavy burden for the Soviet economy.  At the same time, Reagan persuaded Saudi Arabia to increase oil production, even as other non-OPEC nations were increasing production. These developments contributed to the 1980s oil glut, which affected the Soviet Union, as oil was the main source of Soviet export revenues. Issues with command economics,  oil prices decreases and large military expenditures gradually brought the Soviet economy to stagnation.”.

September 15, 1982: Central Front/Europe-  At a Warsaw Pact meeting, Andropov illustrate the plan for the attack on West Germany and the details of all Warsaw Pact Nations involvement adding that major arms supply will be provided to them. When the offensive will start terrorists acts against NATO headquarters will be performed by Red Brigades and RAF in Italy and FDR respectively with support of STASI and KGB agents already part of “Sleeper Cells” in those countries. He adds that to increase pressure in the US and drain resource from Central Europe all proxy wars (Central America, Southern Africa, Northern Africa) shall continue and countries like Nicaragua, El Salvador, Angola and Libya will be supplied with new military equipment and instructors.

October 1, 1982: Central Front/Europe- Helmut Kohl of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) replaces the Social Democrat Helmut Schmidt as Chancellor of Germany through a Constructive Vote of No Confidence.

October 8, 1982 : Central Front/Europe- In Poland, the Communist Government bans Solidarity after having suspended it on 13 December 1981.

November 1, 1982: Central Front/Europe-The final details for the attack in West Germany are defined; the date of the attack is an important date for the Communist regime May 1st 1983, that is also a holiday in almost all Western Europe.

November 13, 1982: Central Front/Europe- The first United States cruise missiles arrive at Greenham Common Airbase in England amid protests from peace campaigners.

November 14, 1982: Central Front/Europe- The leader of Poland's outlawed Solidarity movement, Lech Wałęsa, is released from 11 months of internment near the Soviet border.

December 12, 1982: Central Front/Europe- Women's peace protest at Greenham Common: 30,000 women hold hands and form a human chain around the 14.5 km (9 mi) perimeter fence.

December 15, 1982: Central Front/Europe- British Mi-5 seize three KGB agents in an house 5 miles outside of Bayswater RAF base, material for a Nuclear bomb was found there.

December 22, 1982: Central Front/Europe- English newspaper “The Independent” publish the story of the Soviet “Protocol 4” mission.


Middle East

January 30, 1982: Middle East- US Secretary of State, Alexander Haig files a report with US President Ronald Reagan  reveales Secretary Haig's fear that Israel might, at the slightest provocation, start a war against Lebanon.

April 21, 1982: Middle East- After a landmine kills an Israeli officer while he was visiting a South Lebanese Army gun emplacement in Taibe, Lebanon, the Israeli Air Force attacks the Palestinian-controlled coastal town of Damour, killing 23 people.

April 25, 1982: Middle East- Israel completes its withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula in accordance with the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty.

May 9, 1982: Middle East-Israeli aircraft again attack targets in Lebanon. Later that same day, UNIFIL observes the firing of rockets from Palestinian positions in the Tyre region into northern Israel, but none of the projectiles hit an Israeli settlement.

June 6, 1982: Middle East- Israel’s ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov is shot and seriously wounded in London by terrorists belonging to the Iraqi-backed Abu Nidal terrorist organization. The organization is the longtime rival of PLO.  The PLO denies complicity in the attack, but Israel retaliates with punishing air and artillery strikes against Palestinian targets in Lebanon, including the PLO camps. Sabra and Shatila refugee camps are bombed for four hours. The PLO hit back firing rockets at northern Israel causing considerable damage and some loss of life.

June 6, 1982: Middle East-  The 1982 Lebanon War begins: Forces under Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon invade southern Lebanon in their "Operation Peace for the Galilee," Israel's publicly stated objective was to push PLO forces back 40 kilometres (25 mi) to the north. Israeli forces pushes in from Southern Lebanon in a three-pronged offensive.

June 6, 1982: Middle East- The United Nations Security Council votes to demand that Israel withdraw its troops from Lebanon.

June 9, 1982 : Middle East- With the advance of IDF forces north, the IDF/AF could no longer ignore the massive array of SAM and AAA systems the Syrians deployed in Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley a year earlier. The IDF/AF set out to destroy the ninenteen SAM batteries and their support network in a major operation consisting of several waves, each made up of dozens of attack aircraft employing a variety of guided and un-guided air-to-ground ammunition, backed by some ground launched Shrike anti-radar missiles, as well as a massive screen of ECM and decoys. More than sixty Syrian interceptors (all different versions of MiG-21 and -23s) – which was slightly more than the Israelis expected – are scrambled to defend the air defense network, clashing with dozens of Israeli fighters to produce what could very well be the biggest jet dogfight in history. The SyAAF suffers considerable losses (estimated attwenyfive aircraft) at the hands of IDF/AF F-15s and F-16s, tasked exclusively with air-to-air missions.

June 10-11, 1982 : Middle East- More clashes follows when the SyAAF not only attempts to challenge the Israeli control of the skies over Lebanon, but also to strike advancing Israeli units on the ground. IDF/AF ends the days  with more than eighty victories

June 11, 1982: Middle East- Israel and Syrian Governments agree on a ceasefire to start at noon that would not apply to PLO, before it a final air battle would cost Syrian Air Force further eighteen aircraft.

June 13, 1982: Middle East-The ring around Beirut is closed, seven days after the start of Israeli invasion to Lebanon. PLO and part of Syrian forces are isolated in the city.

July 1, 1982 : Middle East-Full scale siege of Beirut start by Israeli forces where 14’000 PLO and 2’000 Mourabitim militiamen are well dug.

July 14- 16, 1982 : Middle East- Ariel Sharon and chief of staff Rafael Eitan obtains Prime Minister Begin's support for large scale operation for conquering of West Beirut in order to achieve the eviction of PLO. But the plan is rejected two days later by full Israeli cabinet, out of concern for heavy loss of life.

August 1, 1982: Middle East- Beirut International Airport is take, after fierce fightings, by the Golani Brigade of the IDF.

August 4, 1982: Middle East- The United Nations Security Council votes to censure Israel because its troops are still in Lebanon, meanwhile IDF make its drive into the city of Beirut cutting off PLO camps from PLO Headquarters.

August 10, 1982: Middle East- As American envoy Philip Habib submitts a draft agreement to Israel, defense minister Sharon, probably impatient with what he regarded American meddling, orders a saturation bombing of Beirut, during which at least three hundred people die. That bombing is followed by the protest to the Israeli government by President Ronald Reagan.

August 14, 1982: Middle East- the Israeli cabinet strip Ariel Sharon of most of his powers, he is not allowed to order the use of air force, armored force and artillery without agreement of cabinet or prime-minister.

August 18, 1982 : Middle East- Israel, Lebanon, and the PLO finally agree, with US mediation, on a peace deal.

August 20, 1982: Middle East- Lebanese Civil War: A multinational force lands in Beirut to oversee the PLO withdrawal from Lebanon. 350 French paratroopers arrive in Beirut, followed by 800 US Marines and Italian Bersaglieri plus additional international peacekeepers (for a total force of 2,130) to supervise the removal of the PLO, first by ship and then overland, to Tunisia, Yemen, Jordan, and Syria. Altogether 8500 PLO men are evacuated to Tunisia, and 2500 by land to other Arab countries.

September 14, 1982: Middle East- Lebanese President-elect Bachir Gemayel is assassinated in Beirut as a bomb was detonated at the Phalangists headquarters.

September 18, 1982: Middle East- The Lebanese Christian Militia (the Phalange) kill thousands of Palestinians in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps with the overlooking of Israeli troops in West Beirut. The massacre is in retaliation for the assassination of pro-Israel president-elect, Bachir Gemayel, as well as several Palestinian massacres against Lebanese Christians.

September 23, 1982: Middle East- Amin Gemayel, brother of Bachir, is elected president of Lebanon.

September 25, 1982: Middle East-  In Israel, 400,000 marchers demand the resignation of Prime Minister Menachem Begin.

November 11, 1982: Middle East- Suicide attack on the IDF headquarters in Tyre. 76 Israeli soldiers and 27 Lebanese are killed in the blast.


Central America

January 4, 1982: Central America- After Reagan has signed the top secret National Security Decision Directive 17 (NSDD-17), CIA proceeds and provides support the contras with $19 million in military aid. The effort to support the contras is one component of the Reagan Doctrine, which calls for providing military support to movements opposing Soviet-supported, communist governments.

March 3, 1982: Central America- Communist rebels with Nicaraguan Aides takes control of Santa Ana region in northern El Salvador

April, 1982: Central America-  Edén Pastora (Comandante Cero), one of the heroes in the fight against Somoza, organizes the Sandinista Revolutionary Front (FRS) – embedded in the Democratic Revolutionary Alliance (ARDE) – and declares war on the Sandinista government. Himself a former Sandinista who has held several high posts in the government, he has resigned apruptly in 1981 and defected, believing that the newly found power have corrupted the Sandinista's original ideas

May-August, 1982: Central America- Mexico starts receiving MiG23 and T72 Tank that are deployed in the northern area of Mexico, close to the US border. This move forces the United States to re-deploy two Army Corps from Italy to Texas.

June 7, 1982: Central America- FLMN enters in San Salvador while El Salvador president Napoleon Duarte flees in Honduras.

July 22, 1982: Central America- In Guatemala General Efraín Ríos Montt is named President of the military junta, continuing the bloody campaign of torture, forced disappearances, and "scorched earth" warfare.

August, 1982: Central America- United States hold a joint exercise with the Hondurans, “Big Pine” , in the meantime, they continued to develop
facilities in Honduras, including a radar complex outside Tegucigalpa, and another – manned by US Marines – on Tiger Island, in the Gulf of Fonseca.

September, 8 1982: Central America-  ARDE (The contras Air Arm)  executes it best-known operation, two T-28s approach Managua flying at a very low level. The first drops a bomb near the home of Foreign Minister,  the second Trojan attack Managua’s Augusto César Sandino Airport. The Nicaraguan soldiers open fire with AAA and personal weapons, hitting the plane as it was underway along the runway: the T-28 burst into flames and smash into the airport control tower, killing the crew of two. Documents found in the wreckage attest that the aircraft took off from Tobías Bolanos airfield, near Costa Rican capital of San José.

September 23, 1982: Central America-  3.200 US troops are airlifted to Honduras in Lockheed C-141 StarLifter, C-5A Galaxy and C-130 Hercules transports

October-December, 1982: Central America- Honduras receives military equipment from the US, among them a Squadron of F20 Tigershark, manned by USAF pilots of Honduran ancestry and supported by USAF specialists.

December, 1982: Central America- In Guatemala the four guerrilla groups, EGP, ORPA, FAR and PGT, merge and forme the URNG, influenced by the Salvadoran guerrilla FMLN, the Nicaraguan FSLN and Cuba's government, in order to become stronger. As a result of the Army's "scorched earth" tactics in the countryside, more than 45,000 Guatemalans flew across the border to Mexico. The Mexican government placed the refugees in camps in Chiapas and Tabasco and secretly starts training them for insurrection.

Offline elmayerle

  • Its about time there was an Avatar shown here...
  • Über Engineer...at least that is what he tells us.
Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #16 on: December 23, 2012, 01:36:44 AM »
*whistles* A few minor changes and things suddenly start getting far hotter than in OTL (Our Time Line).

Offline Glanini

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Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #17 on: December 23, 2012, 06:12:13 PM »
South America

January 16, 1982: South America– Falklands War- An Intelligence report signal to the British Government the willingness of Argentina to take actions against the Falklands Islands. As a consequence it is ordered to accelerate the activities on HMS Ark Royal that is currently scheduled to entry into service in October 1982.

February 28, 1982: South America– Falklands War- Fuerza Aerea Argentina receives sixteen Dassault Mirage F1 from Israel.

March , 1982: South America –  Falklands War- A ship of the Argentine navy, ARA Francisco de Gurruchaga, anchored at the Deceit island, de facto under Chilean sovereignty since 1881, and refused to abandon the bay despite Chilean demands

March 18, 1982: South America –  Falklands War- An Argentine scrap metal dealer raises the Argentine flag in South Georgia.

April 2, 1982 : South America – Falklands War- The Falklands War begins: Argentina invades and occupies the Falkland Islands. Argentine forces mount amphibious landings of the Falkland Islands, before the Falklands War began. The invasion meet a nominal defence organised by the Falkland Islands' Governor Sir Rex Hunt, giving command to Major Mike Norman of the Royal Marines.

April 3, 1982: South America –  Falklands War- Argentina's Invasion of South Georgia. Argentine naval forces seize control of the east coast of South Georgia after overpowering a small group of Royal Marines at Grytviken.

April 6, 1982: South America –  Falklands War-  The British Government set up a War Cabinet to provide day-to-day political oversight of the campaign. This is the critical instrument of crisis management for the British with its remit being to "keep under review political and military developments relating to the South Atlantic, and to report as necessary to the Defence and Overseas Policy Committee."

April 8, 1982: South America –  Falklands War-  Argentina refuses  U.S. peace overtures, U.S. Secretary of State Alexander Haig announced that the United States would prohibit arms sales to Argentina and provide material support for British operations. Both Houses of the U.S. Congress pass resolutions supporting the U.S. action siding with the United Kingdom. The U.S. provided the United Kingdom with military equipment ranging from submarine detectors to the latest missiles. France provides dissimilar aircraft training so Harrier pilots could train against the French aircraft used by Argentina. French and British intelligence also worked to prevent Argentina from obtaining more Exocet missiles on the international market.

April 13, 1982: South America –  Falklands War- British Government struck a secret deal with Chile to have access to air base and airspace for secret recce missions over Argentina. Chile accepts in change for spares and upgrades on Hunters and Canberras support that were under UN embargo and would provide also technical information on the Soviet equipment previously acquired by the Allende’s Government.

April 16, 1982: South America –  Falklands War- Peru openly sends "Mirages, pilots and missiles" to Argentina during the war. Through Libya, under Muammar Gaddafi, Argentina received twenty launchers and sixty SA-7 missiles, as well as machine guns, mortars and mines, all in all, the load of four trips of two Boeing 707 of the AAF, refuelled in Recife with the knowledge and consent of the Brazilian government.

April 21, 1982: South America –  Falklands War- British retake South Georgia during Operation Paraquet. The first landings of SAS troops took place on 21 April.

April 25, 1982: South America –  Falklands War- After resupplying the Argentine garrison in South Georgia, the submarine ARA Santa Fe is spotted on the surface by a Westland Wessex HAS Mk 3 helicopter from HMS Antrim, which attacks the Argentine submarine with depth charges. HMS Plymouth launches a Westland Wasp HAS.Mk.1 helicopter, and HMS Brilliant launches a Westland Lynx HAS Mk 2. Santa Fe is damaged badly enough to prevent her from diving. The crew abandon the submarine at the jetty at King Edward Point on South Georgia. With the Tidespring now far out to sea and the Argentine forces augmented by the submarine's crew, Major Sheridan decide to gather the seventysix men he has and make a direct assault that day. After a short forced march by the British troops and a naval bombardment demonstration by two Royal Navy vessels (Antrim and Plymouth), the Argentine forces surrender without resistance.

April 28, 1982: South America –  Falklands War- Royal Navy deploys HMS Ark Royal on its first operative mission, after overhaul, to the Falklands.

May 2, 1982 : South America – Falklands War- Royal Air Force operations on the Falklands open with the "Black Buck 1" attack (of a series of five) on the airfield at Stanley. A BAC TSR.2 Storm bomber from Ascension fly on an 8,000-nautical-mile (15,000 km; 9,200 mi) round trip dropping conventional bombs across the runway at Stanley and back to Ascension. The mission requires repeated refuelling, and several Victor tanker aircraft operating in concert, including tanker to tanker refuelling

May 2, 1982 : South America – Falklands War- The first naval loss is the World War II-vintage Argentine light cruiser ARA General Belgrano. The nuclear-powered submarine HMS Conqueror sink the Belgrano. Three hundred and twenty-three members of Belgrano's crew die in the incident. Over seven hundred men are rescued from the open ocean despite cold seas and stormy weather.

May 4, 1982: South America –  Falklands War- HMS Sheffield is hit by an Exocet missile strike from the Argentine 2nd Naval Air Fighter/Attack Squadron, and burns out of control; twenty sailors are killed. The ship sinks on May 10. 

May 14, 1982: South America –  Falklands War- The SAS carry out the raid on Pebble Island at the Falklands, where the Argentine Navy has taken over a grass airstrip for MB339K Veltros and Aeritalia G91  light ground attack aircraft and T-34 Mentors. The raid destroy the aircraft there.

May 21, 1982 : South America – Falklands War- British landings spark the Battle of San Carlos. The amphibious landing on beaches around San Carlos Water, on the northwestern coast of East Falkland facing onto Falkland Sound. The bay, known as Bomb Alley by British forces, is the scene of repeated air attacks by low-flying Argentine jets.

May 22, 1982 : South America – Falklands War- HMS Ardent is sunk by Argentine aircraft, killing twentytwo sailors.

May 25, 1982: South America –  Falklands War- British ships HMS Coventry and Atlantic Conveyor are sunk during the Falklands War. The loss of all but one of the Chinook helicopters being carried by the Atlantic Conveyor is a severe blow from a logistics perspective.

May 27-28, 1982: South America –  Falklands War- From early on 27 May until 28 May 2 Para, (approximately 500 men) with artillery support from 8 (Alma) Commando Battery, Royal Artillery, approaches and attacks Darwin and Goose Green, which is held by the Argentine 12th Infantry Regiment. After a tough struggle that last all night and into the next day, the British win the battle; in all, seventeen British and fortyseven Argentine soldiers are killed. In total almost one thousand Argentine troops (including two hundred Argentine Air Force personnel of the Condor airfield) are taken prisoners.

June 1, 1982 : South America – Falklands War- with the arrival of a further 5,000 British troops of the 5th Infantry Brigade, the new British divisional commander, Major General Jeremy Moore RM, has sufficient force to start planning an offensive against Stanley.

June 8, 1982 : South America – Falklands War- British RFA Sir Galahad is destroyed during the Bluff Cove Air Attacks by three Sepecat Jaguar from Argentine Air Force.

June 11, 1982 : South America – Falklands War- After several days of painstaking reconnaissance and logistic build-up, British forces launch a brigade-sized night attack against the heavily defended ring of high ground surrounding Stanley. Units of 3 Commando Brigade, supported by naval gunfire from several Royal Navy ships, simultaneously assault in the Battle of Mount Harriet, Battle of Two Sisters, and Battle of Mount Longdon.

June 13, 1982 : South America – Falklands War- The night of 13 June see the start of the second phase of attacks, in which the momentum of the initial assault is maintained. 2 Para with CVRT support from The Blues and Royals, capture Wireless Ridge at the Battle of Wireless Ridge, at a loss of three British and twentyfive Argentine dead, and the 2nd battalion, Scots Guards captured Mount Tumbledown at the Battle of Mount Tumbledown, which cost ten British and thirty Argentine lives. With the last natural defence line at Mount Tumbledown breached, the Argentine town defences of Stanley begin to falter.

June 14, 1982 : South America – Falklands War- The Falklands War ends: Formal surrender of Argentine forces.  A cease fire is declared and the commander of the Argentine garrison in Stanley, Brigade General Mario Menéndez surrender to Major General Jeremy Moore the same day.

June 18, 1982 : South America – Falklands War- Argentine military dictator Leopoldo Galtieri resigns, in the wake of his country's defeat in the Falklands War.

June 20, 1982 : South America – Falklands War- The British retake the South Sandwich Islands, (which involve accepting the surrender of the Southern Thule Garrison at the Corbeta Uruguay base) and declare hostilities to be over. Argentina had established Corbeta Uruguay in 1976, but prior to 1982 the United Kingdom has contested the existence of the Argentine base only through diplomatic channels.

July 21, 1982: South America-HMS Hermes, the Royal Navy flagship during the Falklands War, returns home to Portsmouth to a hero's welcome.

Southern Africa

January-April, 1982: Southern Africa-  SAAF participate in operations by UNITA, which gains more and more control of south-eastern Angola. The attacks by far exceed the previous hit and -run operations and are aimed primarily at the Benguela Railway.

March 1982: Southern Africa- South African aircraft maker Atlas, starts building the Cheetah, a slightly modified version of the IAI Kfir, with Israeli support.

June-September, 1982: Southern Africa-  Cubans get Increasingly involved in the fighting, either because they had garrisons in the embattled area or because they come to the rescue of FAPLA units under attack. The UNITA insurgency and South African attacks have a crippling effect on the Angolan economy, especially agriculture and infrastructure, and the hostilities create hundreds of thousands of refugees.


Afghanistan


January-February, 1982: Afghanistan-Urban fightings in Herat and Kandahar.

May, 1982: Afghanistan- Panjseher V- The first major offensive is carried out by a force of 12,000 soldiers supported by more than one hunderd helicopters and twentysix airplanes. The main assault begin on the night of May 16. While motorized rifle battalions, preceded by reconnaissance units, attack the dominating features at the entrance of the valley, airborne units are airlifted by helicopter behind the main Mujahideen defenses. In all, 4,200 troops are airlifted into the valley to capture strategic points, right up to the Pakistani border, in an effort to cut the Mujahideen supply lines.

June, 1982: Afghanistan- Panjseher V- Massoud, who expected an attack similar to the previous ones, has disposed his defenses close to the entrance of the valley, and is thus unable to prevent the Soviets from gaining footholds in the Panjshir. They establish three main bases at Rukha, Bazarak and Anava. Most of the Mujahideen have survived the attack and Massoud divides them into small, mobile groups that fight the Soviets all down the valley.

July, 1982: Afghanistan- Panjseher V- During this offensive, the Soviets manage to occupy a large part of the Panjshir and scored some successes however, most of the rebels have escaped capture, and this was not the decisive victory the Soviets have been hoping for. Also, their heavily fortified bases only give them control over the valley floor, while the surrounding heights are still held by the Mujahideen. For this reason they decide to launch a sixth offensive.

August, 1982: Afghanistan- Panjseher VI- The sixth offensive consists of a series of sweeps conducted by motorised units and by airborne Spetsnaz units, launched from their bases in the Panjshir, to find and destroy the Mujahideen hideouts. It is accompanied by a heavy aerial bombardment of villages suspected of harbouring rebel groups, notably carried out by Tu-16 bombers flying from inside the Soviet Union. Heliborne troops carry out search and destroy missions, encircling Massoud's mobile units and destroying some of them. However, as a rule attrition among the Mujahideen is low, and the brunt of the attacks fell on the civilian population, who suffers heavily, many of them preferring to flee the valley.

September, 1982: Afghanistan- Panjseher VI- Once the height of the offensive has passed, many areas captured by the Soviet forces are handed over to Afghan army units, who suffer from low morale and high desertion rates. They are the targets for Massoud's counterattacks.

October, 1982: Afghanistan- Panjseher VI- In a series of surprise attacks, several government outposts fall to the rebels. The government post at Birjaman fall soon after, and the Mujahideen are able to recapture some areas in this way. These operations, along with the continued harassment of Soviet garrisons and resupply convoys, prove that the Mujahideen are far from defeated, and convince the Soviets that they must negotiate a truce with Massoud. Despite bitter fighting, the Soviets are unable to eradicate the Mujahideen, and the battle soon develop into a stalemate. During the 5th and 6th offensives the Soviets suffer up to 3,000 casualties, and 1,000 Afghan Army soldiers defect to the Mujahideen



Iran-Iraq

March, 1982  : Iran-Iraq- Iran take the offensive and the Iraqi military is forced to retreat.

May 18, 1982: Iran-Iraq- Iranian Army finalizes the  Liberation of Khorramshahr from the Iraqis. The Iranians attack, with some seventy thousand fighters in the Ahvaz-Susangerd area. The Iraqi forces in the area withdrew, and planned to mount a defence at Khorramshahr.

May 20, 1982: Iran-Iraq- The Iraqis launch a counter-offensive. However, despite its scale, the Iranians are able to repulse the attack.

May 22, 1982: Iran-Iraq- The Iranians Liberated Khorramshahr; the vitally strategically important Iranian city whose capture by Iraq have been the low-point of Iranian fortunes in the early days of the war. The Iraqis are ordered to retreat, although many have done when Khorramshar has fallen, back into Iraq. The Iranians capture 12,000 Iraqi troops and a substantial amount of Iraqi military hardware.

June, 1982: Iran-Iraq- an Iranian counter-offensive has recovered the areas lost to Iraq earlier in the war.

June 20-21, 1982: Iran-Iraq- Saddam announces that he was prepared to accept a ceasefire on the basis of the pre-war status quo, the day after Khomeini rejected the Iraqi peace offer in a speech and proclaimed that Iran would invade Iraq and would not stop until the Ba'ath regime is replaced by an Islamic Shia republic.

July 13, 1982: Iran-Iraq- Iranian units crossed the border in force, aiming towards the city of Basra, the second most important city in Iraq. However, the enemy they encounter have entrenched itself in formidable defenses.

October 1, 1982: Iran-Iraq- Iran launches the The Muslim-ibn-aqil offensive, with small IRGC units in high spirits attacking Iraqi positions high on the hills, followed by mechanised Army units in the morning. Due to  a lack of co-ordination between the IRIAS and the IRGC units and so the battle soon developed into a bloody struggle for every hill.

October 7, 1982 : Iran-Iraq- the Iranians have lost their positions overlooking Mandali; but, they hold off the other Iraqi counterattacks and also claim seven Iraqi fighter-bombers as shot down, in addition liberating 150km2 of their own soil.

November 2, 1982 : Iran-Iraq- Iran launches the The MOHARRAM offensive. By the dawn of 2 November, the IrAF, the IrAAC, the IRIAF and the IRIAA has thrown everything they have into the battle, with the Iraqis trying to block a further Iranian advance towards the west, and the Iranians trying to suppress Iraqi armour, which is constantly inflicting losses on their infantry. The IRIAF Tomcats intercept numerous Iraqi formations, claiming seven MiGs, Sukhois, and helicopters as shot down. The Iraqis have fiercely denied suffering such losses, but in event the IRIAF establishes local air superiority, enabling TFB.3 Phantoms to bomb Iraqis with BL.755 CBUs, destroying scores of tanks and other vehicles. Then the IRIAA Cobras and the Gendarmerie O-2As appears over the battlefield and start rolling the Iraqi tanks back.

November 6-7, 1982 : Iran-Iraq- the Iranian forces have reached the strategic Sharahani-Zobeidat road, cutting the most important Iraqi logistical route in the area. The town is captured, but hold only very briefly, as the Iraqis are swift to react with a major counteroffensive of their elite Republican Guards units, which deploys their brand-new T-72 tanks, recently delivered from the USSR, driving them directly from Baghdad. By the 7 November, both sides suffer extensive losses, and are very tired of constant battles, so they settle to stabilise their new positions, or to improve them through local counterattacks.

November 20, 1982 : Iran-Iraq- the Iraqi troops in the Moharram, on the front between Eyn-e Khosh and Musiyan, are in a critical condition. The Iranians have managed to capture several important oilfields, and cut the main communication lines into the area; the IrAF is prevented from intervening by the IRIAF interceptors and SAMs; and the intervention efforts of the IrAAC ends with its helicopters either being shot down by Iranian fighters and Cobras, or being hampered in their operations by strong winds and bad weather.


Far East/Oceania

April- May 22, 1982: Far East- A company-size clash between PLA and PAVN units occur in the Luojiaping Mountain in Yunnan Province and last for fiftyseven days.

September 20, 1982: Far East- China- For the first time, China launches three satellites into orbit, on a rocket from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. The feat lead some observers to speculate that China has gained the ability to launch multiple nuclear warheads or that it has set up an early warning system against missile attacks.

November 27, 1982: Far East- Yasuhiro Nakasone of the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan is elected to the rank  of Prime Minister

December 4, 1982 : Far East- China-  The People's Republic of China adopts its current constitution.


Mediterrean / North Africa

January, 1982: Mediterrean / North Africa- In Chad Oum Hadjer fall, at only one hundred miles from Ati, the last relevant town before the capital. The GUNT is saved for the moment by Armee de l’Aire, the only credible military force confronting Habré, that prevented the FAN from taking Ati.

January, 1982: Mediterrean / North Africa -  Over one hundred thirty United States military advisors work with the FAR, several of them seen in Western Sahara, Moroccan Forces Armees Royales (FAR) begin to go on the offensive.

March 10, 1982: Mediterrean / North Africa -  The United States places an embargo on Libyan oil imports, alleging Libyan support for terrorist groups.

June 5-7, 1982: Mediterrean / North Africa-The GUNT forces attempt to make a last stand at Massaguet, fifty miles north of capital on the Abéché-N'Djamena road, but are defeated by the FAN  after a hard battle. Two days later Habré enters unopposed in N'Djamena, making him the de facto source of national government in Chad, while Goukouni flee the country seeking sanctuary in Cameroon.

December, 1982: Mediterrean / North Africa-Before Gaddafi could throw his full weight behind Goukouni, Habré attack the GUNT in the Tibesti, but is repelled.


Sub Saharian Africa


April, 1982 : Sub-Saharian Africa- In Ethiopia,  the Operation "Red Star" hit the EPLF (Eritrean People Liberation Front) strongholds at Naqfa and Helhal, where the rebels are subjected to unprecedented bombing raids, in which phosphorous and napalm bombs are used extensively. Nevertheless, supported by the attacks of Ethiopian rebels against government supply bases, the Eritreans hold out and hit back, in turn flaring-up also another uprising in the Ogaden, which distract and stretch Ethiopian resources. In the end, "Red Star" fails, with the Ethiopian Army and the Cubans suffering as many as one hundred thousand casualties.

August 1, 1982 : Sub-Saharian Africa- An attempted coup against government of Daniel Arap Moi in Kenya organized by Air Force officers fails.



Northern Ireland

July 20, 1982: Northern Ireland - Hyde Park and Regent's Park bombings – eleven British soldiers and seven military horses die in PIRA bomb attacks during military ceremonies in Regent's Park and Hyde Park, London. Many spectators are badly injured.

December 6, 1982: Northern Ireland - Droppin Well bombing – eleven British soldiers and six civilians are killed by an INLA time bomb at the Droppin’ Well Bar in Ballykelly, County Londonderry.


Offline Glanini

  • Newly Joined - Welcome me!
Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #18 on: January 02, 2013, 01:22:36 AM »
1983

Central Front/Europe

February 1, 1983: Central Front/Europe- The new Soviet fighter, the Sukhoi Su27 enters in servive with Soviet VVS his NATO codename is “Flanker”. It is far more advanced than its western counterpart the F15 “Eagle”

March 4, 1983 : Central Front/Europe- The Socialist Bettino Craxi is elected PM of Italy. He will lead a five party coalition Socialist, Social-Democrat, Republican, Liberal, Democratic-Christian and external support of the Communist Party.

March 8, 1983: Central Front/Europe- In the West German federal elections of March 1983, Kohl win a smashing victory. The CDU/CSU win 48.8%, while the FDP win 7.0%.

March 15, 1983: Central Front/Europe- In USA the new AWACS, the Boeing E4 “Sentinel”, based on the Boeing 757 passenger airplane enters in service with USAF.

March 23, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI): United States President Ronald Reagan makes his initial public proposal to develop technology to intercept enemy missiles. The media dub this plan "Star Wars".

March 31, 1983 : Central Front/Europe- Korean Air Flight 007 takes off from Anchorage, Alaska, heading for Seoul, South Korea. It veers slightly off course, flies over the southern tips of Kamchatka Peninsula and Sakhalin Island, Soviet territory, and is shot down by a Soviet Sukhoi Su15 aircraft. All 269 on board are killed.

April 1, 1983 : Central Front/Europe- NATO Intelligence Report start to notify massive troops movement in all Warsaw Pact countries. All the Units of  Soviet Group of Forces in Germany are at maximum strength and are deployed in this order: In Northern East Germany is the 2nd Guards Tank Army, in the Central Area are stationed the 3rd Shock Army and 8th Guards Army, facing Bavaria there is 1st Guards Tank Army with  20th Guards Army in the rearguard while Czechoslovakia is given to the responsibility of Soviet Central Group of Forces.

April 4, 1983 : Central Front/Europe- Warsaw Pact announces that a major exercise, involving all members of the Pact, will be going on in East Germany for more than a month.

April 7-14, 1983: Central Front/Europe- NATO troops are alerted, the front is divided as follows: The Northern Front is assigned to the 8th West Germany Mechanized Division,  Northern Army Group is composed by the 1st West German Corp , 1st Netherland Corp, 1st British Corp, 1st Belgian Corp,   with UK Mobile force and US III Corps as reinforcement, Central Army Group is composed by  West Germany II Corp, US VII Corp, the West Germany II Corp with France II Corp,  Canadian Brigade and France 1st Army as reinforcement.

April 21, 1983: Central Front/Europe- NATO Secret Services are providing conflicting reports about the Warsaw Pact troops movements, with the majority of them, in particular the ones coming from West Germany Intelligence, are conferming that Warsaw Pact is just doing an Exercise.

April 30, 1983: Central Front/Europe- NATO publishes an update of its the Order of Battles and Warsaw Pact and other Communist states as well.

May 1, 1983: Central Front/Europe- At midnight GDR Luftstreitkräfte and USSR VVS start striking in West Germany with the air cover of MiG 29 Fulcrums. At the same time Soviet T80s Tanks formation cross the IGB (Inner German Border) and pushes towards the Fulda Gap. At the same time Rote Armee Fraktion terrorists detonates bombs on major roads in order to delay the movement of NATO troops and vehicles.

May 1, 1983: Central Front/Europe- At 12:20 in the afternoon on the east of the West German town of Kielbach a platoon of four M1A2 Abrams Tanks is moved to stop an anticipated Soviet lunge for the junction to the Fulda Gap. By 13:40 the 2nd Battallion of 178th GITR had been destroyed with just two BMP-2s surviving, of the four NATOs M1A2s, two are immediately repaired while a third one suffers major damage. At 14:05 2 flights of RAF 2 (AC) Squadron Tornados flying at extremely low level destroyes other twentyfour Tanks of the 178th.

May 1, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Soviet tanks division push into central West Germany aiming at Frankfurt  with an attack from the Thuringian Bulge through the Fulda Gap.  The distance from the Inner German Border to Frankfurt is a mere 100 km. Capturing Frankfurt would effectively cut West Germany in half, and given the importance of north-south lines of communication, would leave NATO’s forces in southern Germany isolated. The main attack is performed by the Soviet 8th Guard Army against the V US Corps.  West Berlin is attacked by the 20th Guards of Soviet Army and by GDR units.

May 2, 1983: Central Front/Europe- All NATO members declares war to Warsaw Pact following article 5 of the NATO statute. Australia and New Zealand joins NATO declarations.

May 2,1983: Central Front/Europe-British Government declares Mandatory Draft for all Citizens with age between 18 and 35.

May 2, 1983: Central Front/Europe- GDR special troops of the 1st Army and part of Soviet 2nd Army Tank Guards pushes into northern West Germany in order to get to Denmark.

May 2, 1983: Central Front/Europe- POMCUS Tank crews are flown from the United States to West Germany to be th crew of tanks divisions already placed in West Germany. At the same time Mission Reforger is activate with additional Army and Marines units deployed to Europe through Lockheed C141 Cargos.

May 2, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Vicious fights are happening in West Berlin with RAF Harriers providing ground support amongst the buildings on fire. West German Polizei, already trained in the use of small arms and mortars joins the fight with the Berlin Brigade of US Army and and Berlin Infantry Brigade of British Army as well against East German 1st Motorized Rifle Division, that has been trained for that specific target for three years.

May 2, 1983: Central Front/Europe- China release an official statement that say “Though PRC understands the actions put in place by the Warsaw Pact to free West Germany, the People of China  will remain neutral and will act in order to help peace to be succesful”.
May 3, 1983: Central Front/Europe- All major European Leaders, Helmuth Kohl, Francois Mitterand, Bettino Craxi and Margaret Tatcher fly to Washington for a summit with Reagan where they evaluate all alternatives to counter the Communist attack, including the utilization of the remaining nuclear arsenal. This one is discarded for the fear of a Soviet reprisal on London and Paris. it is decided to hold the positions and not retreat in Middle East and Central America but to suspend any offensive plan.  United Kingdom will support South Africa and Rhodesia in Southern Africa to drain resources to USSR in the support of Angola.

May 3, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Warsaw Pact, Soviet 120th Guards MRR and 39th Guards Motorized Division are at 30 Kilometers from Hamburg that is evacuated by civilians.

May 3, 1983: Central Front/Europe- In Rome Pope John Paul II call for an immediate stop to all offensive operation and for a return to Peace.

May 4, 1983: Central Front/Europe- In a frantic meeting President Reagan asks Japanese and South Korean PM, that have flown to Washington to show their support, to reinforce their borders but to avoid any attack. The opening of another front might not be sustainable by United States.

May 4, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Soviet Spetsnaz and Yugoslavian Army attack north-eastern Italy. The move is a surprise since Italian Intelligence was reporting a strike of the Hungarian Army through Austria and Italian Army units were deployed on that front. The attack is supported by Soviet and Yugoslav MiG29s and Mil Mi24 Hinds. The city of Gorizia is occupied.

May 4-5, 1983: Central Front/Europe-Soviet 2nd Army Tank Guards conquer Kiel and Lubbeck in northern Germany in their push to isolate Denmark.

May 5, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Soviet troops attacks on the Northern Europe front and occupy the town of Vardo in Norway.

May 5, 1983: Central Front/Europe-Italian Communist Party leader (that has more than 30% of seat in the parliament) in a public speech severs all ties with USSR and East Bloc Communist Parties. It confirms thay even if will not enter in the government it will provide external support. This is a major blow to the communist strategy that was hoping in a Communist insurrection in Italy togheter with terrorists actions by the Red Brigades.

May 6, 1983: Central Front/Europe- GDR forces enters Copenhagen and conquer the whole Denmark that is placed under Soviet Military Government.

May 7, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Soviet Spetsnaz units are infiltrated in West Germany with the task to eliminate RAF and Luftwaffe Harriers that are proving very effective against Warpact armoured divisions.

May 7, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Italian Government has activated the “Gladio” plan. It was a plan set-up in the early fifties in case of a Communist insurgence that foresaw a “Stay Behind” structure with depots hidden in northern Italy as long as former soldiers trained to use them in emergency. At the same time Hungarian Army joins Soviet and Yugoslav Armies on the Italian Front.

May 9-24, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Major tank battle outside of Hamburg, Soviet forces are stopped by massive low level attack by Tornado units from RAF, USAF and Luftwaffe. In detail they apply the FOFA NATO doctrine that foresee to destroy the enemy forces that are coming to the front in a way to stop supplies to the first line troops.

May 10, 1983 : Central Front/Europe- Sweden decide to renounce to its neutrality and support Norway in his fight against USSR. This was a serious and unexepected blow to Soviet strategy in that area. Finland see herself too endangered and would remain neutral.

May 10-31, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Soviet troops continue to advance in Scandinavia and arrive (32Km- 20 Mi) to Hammerfest in Norway.

May 12, 1983: Central Front/Europe- In the Caucasus fighting starts between Turkish and Soviet armies. In the area Soviets have reserve units coming from eastern regions not equipped with the latest vehicles but with old T62 tanks instead.

May 14, 1983: Central Front/Europe- After nine days of vicious fightings the city of Trieste falls in Yugoslav hands, civilians scared by the memories of the 1945 event during Yugoslav occupation leave the town.

May 15, 1983: Central Front/Europe-Warsaw Pact forces complete the occupation of West Berlin. The City is under control of GDR 1st Motorized Rifle Division.

May 16, 1983: Central Front/Europe-French President Mitterand places all French forces under NATO command, the forces are assigned to the Central Front. At the same time ANZACs forces are deployed in Italy, to support Italian Army.

May 18, 1983: Central Front/Europe-United Nations Security Council activities in New York are suspended since the Soviet Union Ambassador is absent. UN General Secretary Javier Perez de Cuellar asks all Nations to stop fightings and start Peace talks.

May 21, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Under American request, Israeli Air Force pilots are sent to Turkey to supplement Turkish Air Force Pilots.

May 24, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Soviet and Yugoslav forces are stopped in Italy in the Friuli region, along the Tagliamento River,  before they would be able to get to the Padania plain. Massive low level attacks from Italian Air Force Tornados have helped by stopping supplies arriving on the front.

May 28, 1983: Central Front/Europe-Using Denmark as a base Soviet units start to attack Sweden, with fighters leaving from bases in Estonia and Lithuania try to gain Air Superiority.

June, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Soviet forces launch a second major attack in Bavaria, the attack is countered by Canadian Forces but Czech and Soviet units are able to go to the outside of Munich.

June 1, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Skirmishes starts along the Bulgarian – Greek border. Bulgarian and Romanian Army armies are weak, though the lack of co-operation between Greek and Turkish armies does not allow NATO to push forward in the Thrace Region and the front will remain stable through the end of the year.

June 2, 1983: Central Front/Europe- USSR deploys two Divisions in Chukotsky Area and stage an attack along the Bering Strait towards Alaska. The attack is just to probe the US defences in the area, but will keep occupied 3 US divisions and 100 USAF planes until the end of the war.

June 7, 1983: Central Front/Europe- The training and skill of Swedish Army is too high for the medium level Soviet units sent to attack Sweden and suffer a major defeat in the Malmo area.

June 9, 1983: Central Front/Europe- United Kingdom general election: Conservative Margaret Thatcher wins in a landslide victory over Michael Foot (72% of the popular vote), the most decisive election victory since 1945.

June 12, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Soviet army suffers a defeat in the Scandinavian Mountains from Swedish and Norwegian Armies and starts retreating.

June 18-24, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Soviet troops starts a push in the Taurus Region of Turkey from Georgia and Armenia the scope of the Operation is to reach the Euphrates River.

June 20-26, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Yugoslav and Soviet units attempt a joint Heliborne and Sea Landing along the Po river delta. After a week of dramatic fightings the communist forces retreats. In particular Australian SAS have disrupted the Warpact communication lines together with Italian “Stay Behind” commandos.

July 1, 1983: Central Front/Europe- French forces, that were used as reserve units, enters in the fray in Bavaria. They are equipped with AMX30B Tanks.

July 5-20, 1983: Central Front/Europe-Major air battle take place over the Baltic Sea, Flygvapnet units equipped with Viggen fighters are able to keep Soviet bombers far from the main land.

July 15, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Turkish Army stops Soviet advance in the Lake Van Area, but the city of Kars is occupied.

July 20, 1983: Central Front/Europe- To gain popular support during the war the government of Poland announces the end of martial law and amnesty for political prisoners.

July 26, 1983: Central Front/Europe- French 2nd Army Corps equipped with AMX30B Tanks wins the battle of Freising, in Bavaria and stops the advance of Czechoslovak and Soviet infantry.

August 10, 1983: Central Front/Europe- In a summit of Warsaw Pact leaders the analysis of the first three months of war is that The Warsaw Pact has a numerical advantage in terms of tanks and manpower, the technological advantage of the NATO forces have helped the stop the attack. In particular Anti-Tank weapons and low-attack airplanes. MiG29s have showed to be superior to NATO counterparts in close combat, but they are detached to few units and have maintenance issues that keep them frequently grounded. A third wave of attack is necessary in September in order to break the front in Germany before the winter.

August 14, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Soviet Tu22 bombs Turkey Capital Ankara, USAF decides to accelerate deliveries of the Northrop F20 Tigershark to Turkish Air Force.

August 22, 1983: Central Front/Europe- USSR leader Yury Andropov suffers a renal failure and enters the Central Clinical Hospital in western Moscow on a permanent basis, where he will spend the remainder of his life. His aides will take turns visiting him in the hospital with important matters and paperwork.

August 28, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Royal Australian Air Force bomber units equipped with BAC TSR2 arrives in Italy at Naples Capodichino Airport.

September, 1983: Central Front/Europe- All VVS MiG29 are re-deployed on the Inner German Border area from the Italian and Balkan front.

September-October, 1983: Central Front/Europe- On the Scandinavian theatre there is a Soviet push on the Norway-Soviet border stopped by Swedish and Norway Army.

September 10-15, 1983: Central Front/Europe- 3rd wave of Soviet attacks in West Germany. MiG29 tries to gain Air Superiority, fierce air battles take place with initial advantage for VVS units.

September 18, 1983: Central Front/Europe- USAF F15 and RAF/Luftwaffe Tornados got severely beaten by VVS MiG 29s that conquer air supremacy, at the same time US VII Corp and West Germany II Corp tanks lacking air cover suffer massive losses from T80s of Soviet 8th Guards Army.

September 20, 1983 : Central Front/Europe- The new French fighter, the Dassault Mirage 2000 is pushed in to the battle with AdlA and Luftwaffe.

September 25, 1983 : Central Front/Europe- SAS and US Navy Seals conquer the Soviet Navy Base in Kunda, Estonia, the purpose of the mission, launched from Sweden is to start an insurrection from the Estonian Population against the Russians.

September 26-30, 1983 : Central Front/Europe- Estonian population starts to support SAS and USMC against Soviet forces but of course they are neutralized by KGB border guards.

October 1, 1983 : Central Front/Europe- Soviet 3rd Shock Army enters Hamburg, they found the docks destroyed so they cannot be used in the near term for re-supply the Warsaw Pact armies.

October 3, 1983 : Central Front/Europe- SAS and USMC are extracted from Kunda and return to Sweden, anyway as rumours of the insurrection spread there are many defections from Lithuania, Latvian and Estonian components of  the Soviet Army.

October 8, 1983: Central Front/Europe- VVS is forced to deploy Su15 and MiG23 in Combat Air Patrol due to the unavailability of MiG29 plagued by maintenaince issues.

October 13, 1983: Central Front/Europe- USAF, RAF and Luftwaffe re-gain air superiority,  on the same day VVS and other Warsaw Pact Air Forces loose more than two hundred airplanes, NATO just twentyeight.

October 15-23, 1983 : Central Front/Europe- Massive raids from RAF and Luftwaffe Tornados and USAF F111 and A9s annihilate Warsaw Pact forces around Hamburg, West Germany II Corp siege the city.

November 1-7, 1983: Central Front/Europe- In order to avoid  a battle inside Hamburg, NATO forces leave a road open in order to let Soviet 3rd Shock Army get out of Hamburg.

November 12, 1983 : Central Front/Europe- The first winter storm hits Germany, with snow up to two metres covering all North and Central Germany.

November 18, 1983 : Central Front/Europe- An attack in the Jutland from 1st Netherland Corp and 1st British Corp is stopped by GDR Army.

December, 1983: Central Front/Europe- Major attacks are stopped on the German front due to the weather conditions. Special forces from both sides make small scale attacks to probe the enemy defences and for intelligence purposes.

December 8, 1983 : Central Front/Europe- A second winter storm hits northern Europe, with strong winds and snow storms, halting most of the Air Operation on the front through the rest of the year. The only airplane capable of still performing mission was the Tornado with its capability of flying at low level.


Middle East

January-June, 1983: Middle East- Lebanon Army receive equipment and training from US and France among them also former IAF Mirage F1.

February 14, 1983: Middle East-The Israeli government decides to transfer Ariel Sharon from his post as Defense Minister, in light of the recommendations of the Kahan Commission report published on 7 February and appoints Moshe Arens as the new Defense Minister.

March 17, 1983: Middle East- Lebanon, Israel, and the United States sign an agreement on Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon.

April 18, 1983: Middle East- U.S. Embassy bombing in Beirut kills 63 people.

April 28, 1983 Middle East- Israel, Lebanon and US signs a new Peace Accord, Syria refused to comply with the withdrawal and increase pressure on Amin Gemayel through its Druze and Shi’ite proxies.

May 2, 1983 Middle East- As the war is started in Europe, American and French units are ordered to keep their position in Lebanon.

June, 1983: Middle East- With Syrian support a radical PLO faction lead by Abu Mussa surrounds Arafat and his supporters in their stronghold of Tripoly.

August,  1983: Middle East- IDF withdraw from the Shouf Mountains , their place is taken by the new Lebanese army with American Equipment.

August 7, 1983: Middle East- Begin himself retires from politics and hands over the reins of the office of Prime Minister to his old friend-in-arms Yitzhak Shamir.

October 23, 1983: Middle East- Simultaneous suicide truck-bombings destroy both the French and the United States Marine Corps barracks in Beirut, killing 241 U.S. servicemen, 58 French paratroopers and 6 Lebanese civilians. The explosives for the attacks was provided by KGB.

November 4, 1983: Middle East- The Israeli Army Headquarters in Tyre, Lebanon is destroyed by a suicide truck bombing.

December, 1983: Middle East- Arafat goes into exile in Tunisia.

December 1, 1983: Middle East- Syrian forces fire on US reconnaissance airplane over the Beka’a Valley

December 4, 1983: Middle East- Lt. Bobby Goodman of the United States Navy is shot down over Lebanon and captured by the Syrians as the US responds to the attack of December 1.


Central America

January-March, 1983: Central America- Fueled by covered US Money Contras operations in Nicaragua increase, Cuba sends 500 “advisors” .

March, 1983: Central America- In Haiti widespread discontent begin, when Pope John Paul II visit the Island. The pontiff declares that "Something must change here." He went on to call for a more equitable distribution of income, a more egalitarian social structure, more concern among the elite for the well-being of the masses, and increased popular participation in public life. This message revitalizes both laymen and clergy, and it contributes to increased popular mobilization and to expand political and social activism.

June, 1983: Central America-  The war in Europe has shifted all the attention, Central American strategy for the United States s now stop Communist advance, but reduce offensive actions unless required.

August 8, 1983: Central America-  Cuban Government issues an ultimatum to the United States Government to leave the base of Guantanamo Bay in one week. USAF starts a major airlift.

August 15, 1983: Central America- Water supply to Guantanamo Bay are closed by the Cuban Government.

August 20, 1983: Central America- Cuban Army attacks Guantanamo Bay, but founds the base defended by no more than a hundred troops garrison. Since the airlift was used to move the troops back in the United States.

August 21, 1983: Central America- US Government releases a statement that condemn the occupation of Guantanamo Bay from Cuban troops and consider it to be not legal.

October 7, 1983: Central America-  On the island of Grenada, the Deputy Prime Minister, Bernard Coard, sees Maurice Bishop as too moderate. He has military officers on his side who have been criticized lately. They overthrow Bishop and place Bishop under house arrest

October 19, 1983: Central America-  Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada, and forty others are assassinated in a military coup.

October 25, 1983 : Central America- After Presiden Reagan decides that US cannot loose another country to Cuban influence in the Caribbean, United States troops invade Grenada at the behest of Eugenia Charles of Dominica, a member of the Organization of American States.

November 21, 1983: Central America- Fighting in Grenada continues for several days and the total number of U.S. troops reached some 7,000 along with 300 troops from the OECS. The invading forces encountered about 3,500 Grenadian soldiers and about 1,700 Cubans. Also present were 300 advisors from the Soviet Union, North Korea, East Germany, Bulgaria, and Libya.

November 17, 1983: Central America- The Zapatista Army of National Liberation is founded in Mexico.

December 15, 1983: Central America-  After more than a month of fighting, US forces are extracted from Grenada with a major helicopter airlift. The support from Cubans, Russians, North Koreans, Libyans, East Germans, Bulgarians advisors has turned the battle in favour of the Marxists government.

South America

April 15, 1983: South America- In Argentina the military government takes a step toward the return of civilian rule. It restores the rights of ninenteen political and labor leaders to take part in political activity.

October 30, 1983: South America-The first democratic elections in Argentina after seven years of military rule are held.

December 10, 1983: South America-Military rule ends and democracy is restored in Argentina, with the beginning of Raúl Alfonsín first term as President of Argentina.


Southern Africa

February-June, 1983: Southern Africa- SAAF receives his first batch of Harriers and Jaguars from the United Kingdom.

May 23, 1983: Southern Africa- A flight of SAAF Harriers bomb Mozambique Army headquarters in Maputo in their effort to support Renamo against the Communits Regime.

December 6, 1983: Southern Africa-South Africa launches its twelfth incursion, Operation Askari, in pursuit of SWAPO units which is also designed to inflict as much damage as possible on FAPLA's increasing military presence in southern Angola.


Afghanistan

January, 1983: Afghanistan- KGB reports that the Soviets incurr high costs for their own foreign interventions. Although Brezhnev was convinced in 1979 that the Soviet war in Afghanistan would be brief, Muslim guerrillas, aided by the US and other countries, waged a fierce resistance against the invasion. The Kremlin sent nearly 100,000 troops to support its puppet regime in Afghanistan, leading many outside observers to dub the war "the Soviets' Vietnam". However, Moscow's quagmire in Afghanistan is far more disastrous for the Soviets than Vietnam has been for the Americans because the conflict coincided with a period of internal decay and domestic crisis in the Soviet system.

January-March, 1983: Afghanistan- A de-facto truce is in place within DRA/Soviet forces and Mujaideen Guerrila in the Panjsher Valley. For the first time a ceasefire is concluded between the Soviets and the Mujahideen, lasting six months, and later extended. Negotiated by Massoud in person with a colonel of the GRU, Anatoly Tkachev, the agreement stipulates that Soviet troops should evacuate the Panjshir, except for a small garrison at Anava, whose access is controlled by the Mujahideen. The area covered by the ceasefire includes the Panjshir valley, but not the Salang pass, where fighting continues. This truce allows Soviet Army to relocate troops to East Germany.

April-June, 1983: Afghanistan- Massoud took advantage of the truce to extend his influence over areas that hav until then been held by hostile factions loyal to Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's Hezb-i-islami party, like in Andarab. More peacefully, he take control of the Khost-Fereng sector, and some areas in southern Takhar, while establishing contacts with other guerilla groups in Baghlan Province, and persuading them to adopt his military organisation. He also orders the strengthening of defenses in five subsidiary valleys as well as in the Panjshir, permitting a defense in depth, and withdraw his headquarters to Shira Mandara, in Takhar province, in anticipation of a renewed assault.

April 10-30, 1983: Afghanistan- Rebels conquer most of the city of Herat, Soviets use heavy bombers to drive them out.

May, 1983: Afghanistan- Soviet units are re-deployed from Afghanistan to the European Central front leaving the main role in counter the Mujiadheen to DRA.

June-September, 1983: Afghanistan- As the war is firing up in Europe, USSR pushes the Afghan government to use DRA units in combat, but those get defeated in the summer in the Patkia and Paktika valleys.

November, 1983: Afghanistan- Soviet offensive in Shomali valley.

December, 1983: Afghanistan- DRA units are sieged in Urgun


Iran-Iraq

January, 1983: Iran-Iraq- An Iraqi-Soviet arms deal was signed in Moscow, which lead to the Soviet Union supplying Iraq with additional T-62 and T-72 tanks; Mig-23 and Mig-25 jets; and SS-21 and Scud-B missiles

February 6, 1983: Iran-Iraq- Iran attack a 40-kilometer stretch near Al Amarah, via marshes and hill ridges. Iran's six-division attack manage to break through with the help of air, artillery, and armor support from the Regular Army. The Iraqis, though outnumbered, respond with two hunderd helicopter sorties per day to support the defenders. The sorties prove so effective that Iraqi tanks are reduced to effective defense roles. Not surprisingly, well over six thousand Iranian troops perishe on the first day of the operation.

February 13, 1983: Iran-Iraq- Iran manage to regain 100 square miles (260 km2) of its own territory. But after a week of stalemate, Iran abandones the operation after making only minimal gains against the Iraqis. Rafsanjani later retractes his earlier boast, saying that the offensive is not the last as expected. As for the Iraqis, this victory helped the poorly trained and shaken ground forces to boost their morale.

April 10, 1983: Iran-Iraq- Iran- Operation Dawn-1 (also known as Operation Valfajr-1) is an Iranian offensive in the Iran–Iraq War. Iran struck Ein Kosh with the immediate objective of Fuka (east of al-Amarah) to capture the Baghdad-Basra Highway. The operation is fought mostly by Pasdaran forces and is one of the three costly human wave offensives of 1983, although despite heavy losses on both sides the operation fails to defeat the Iraqis

June 22, 1983: Iran-Iraq- Iraq foreign minister Tariq Aziz menace to attack Iranian oil installation.

July 22-30, 1983: Iran-Iraq- With Operation Dawn 2, Iran advances nine miles inside Iraq, in Kurdistan. Iranian forces advance from Piranshahr and are highly successful against the Iraqis, effectively seizing Haj Omran in the process. The Iranians and Kurdish guerrillas make use of elevated ridges to launch ambushes on Iraqi positions and convoys. In all, they seized roughly 150 square miles (390 km2) of Iraqi territory. Iraq respond with counteroffensive, launching an airborne assault and employing the use of poison gas for the first time in the entire war. The Iraqis hit Iranian troops on mountain tops near Haj Omran with mustard gas while their troops advance in the slopes. Unfortunately, the Iraqis are unfamiliar with the properties of poison gas and the agent descend back down to the exposed Iraqi troops. At the same time, the rugged terrain hold up Iraqi tanks. The use of helicopter gunships is also hampered, since the Iranian and Kurdish fighters have better cover.

July 30, 1983: Iran-Iraq- Operation Dawn 3 or Operation Valfajr-3 is Iran's worst defeat out of all the Dawn operations. 180,000 Iranian troops participated in this attack but withering Iraqi firepower in support of deeply entrenched troops slaughter the advancing Iranians. The Iraqis struck back by emerging from their trenches to counterattack into Iran and capture Mehran. Although Iranian troops are highly motivated, they are poorly trained and equipped for this battle. For Iran the operation is a disaster

October19-November 15, 1983: Iran-Iraq- Operation Dawn 4 or Operation Valfajr-4 Units of Iraq's First Army Corps spend two months in their trenches waiting for the Iranians to attack. The Iranians and guerillas of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan take 250 square miles of territory. This included a number of Kurdish villages and exert a significant amount of pressure on Penjwin. Saddam Hussein respond with a counterattack, using the Iraqi Republican Guard and poison gas. However, they fail to dislodge the Iranians, who are dug-in and reinforced by Kurdish fighters.

November 2, 1983: Iran-Iraq- Iraq warns merchant vessel to avoid the “War Zone” in the northern area of the Gulf.


Far East/Oceania

May 2, 1983: Far East- North Korea re-deployes almost all of its armed forces units down to the 38th Parallel, awaiting to attack South Korea.

May 3, 1983: Far East- Australia and New Zealand declare war to Soviet Union and all Warsaw Pact nations.

May 4, 1983: Far East- NATO coordinates with Australia and New Zealand to take a containment position with the Communist nation in the Far East (Viet Nam, North Korea) but to avoid any attack. In detail they do not have to escalate with China. They are requested to support only in case Japan or South Korea are attacked. Some ANZACs units will be sent to Europe.

May-August 1983: Far East- USSR makes pressure with North Korea and China to attack South Korea and have US enegaged also in Far East Asia. China refuses to proceed and force Kim Il Sung, that was willing to attack, to hold the position.

June, 1983: Far East- Japan start a massive plan to increase its military both in terms of number and technology, with the Japanese industry building an US license several hardware. It is also changed the name of the services. JASDF will be called Imperial Japanese Air Force, JNSDF will be back to the old World Wa II name of Imperial Japanese Navy and the same for the Army that will be now Imperial Japanese Army. The major projects includes a new Aircraft Carrier equipped with Mitsubishi built F18 and also the McDonnell P4A Pegasus built by Kawasaki.

August 21 1983: Far East- Benigno Aquino, Jr., Philippines opposition leader, is assassinated in Manila just as he returns from exile.


Mediterrean /North Africa

January-March, 1983 : Mediterrean / North Africa- In Chad the clashes intensify in the North, while talks, with even an exchange in March of visits between Tripoli and N'Djamena, break down.

March 17, 1983: Mediterrean / North Africa- Habré bring the Chad-Libya quarrel before the United Nations, asking for an urgent meeting of the UN Security Council to consider Libya's "aggression and occupation" of Chadian territory.

May , 1983: Mediterrean / North Africa- French Government decides to continue missions in North Africa and Middle East, despite the War in Europe. The Foreign Legion will take care of this two areas, while all regular Army units will be deployed in Europe.

June, 1983: Mediterrean / North Africa-The final offensive begin in June, when a three thousand strong GUNT force invested Faya-Largeau, the main government stronghold in the North, that fell on June 25, and then rapidly proceeded towards Koro Toro, Oum Chalouba and Abéché, assuming control of the main routes towards N'Djamena. Libya, while helping with recruiting and training and providing the GUNT with heavy artillery, only committ a few thousand regular troops to the offensive, and most of these are artillery and logistic units. This may have been due to Gaddafi's desire that the conflict should be read as a Chadian internal affair.

June 27, 1983: Mediterrean / North Africa- French arms shipments are resumed in Chad and asks support to Zairian dictator Mobutu in the area.

July 3, 1983 : Mediterrean / North Africa- a first contingent of three hundred Zairians arrived to strengthen Habré.

July 11-27, 1983: Mediterrean / North Africa- The French government accuses again Libya of direct military support to the rebels.

July 30, 1983: Mediterrean / North Africa-Faya –Largeau is taken by government forces in Chad, threatening to attack the Tibesti and the Aouzou Strip.

August 10, 1983: Mediterrean / North Africa-The GUNT-Libyan alliance invests  the Faya-Largeau oasis, where Habré has entrenched himself with about five thousand troops. Battered by multiple rocket launcher (MRL), artillery and tank fire and continuous airstrikes, the FANT's defensive line disintegrates when the GUNT launches the final assault, leaving seven hundred FANT troops on the ground. Habré escapes with the remnants of his army to the capital, without being pursued by the Libyans.

August 16, 1983: Mediterrean / North Africa- Mobutu, also due to French and African pressures, announces the involvement of Zairian troops in Chad as part of Opération Manta, meant to stop the GUNT-Libyan advance and more generally weaken Gaddafi's influence in the internal affairs of Chad. Three days later several hundred Zairian troops are dispatched to N'Djamena, that are later brought to 2,700, with several squadron of Jaguar fighter-bombers and Gazelle attack helicopter.

September, 1983: Mediterrean / North Africa- The French government then defines a limit (the so-called Red Line), along the 15th parallel, extending from Mao to Abéché, and warns that they will not tolerate any incursion south of this line by Libyan or GUNT forces. Both the Libyans and the Zairians  remain on their side of the line, with France showing itself unwilling to help Habré retake the north with Zairian troops, while the Libyans avoids starting a conflict with France by attacking the line. This lead to a de facto division of the country, with Libya maintaining control of all the territory north of the Red Line.


Sub-Saharian Africa

March- September 1983: Sub-Saharian Africa- In early 1983, to eliminate rural support for Museveni's guerrillas, the area of Luwero District is targeted for a massive population removal affecting almost 750,000 people. The resultant refugee camps are subject to military control, and in many cases human rights abuses. Many civilians outside the camps, in what came to be known as the "Luwero triangle," are blamed for being guerrilla sympathizers and are treated accordingly. NRA, likewise, committs atrocities, including the use of land mines specifically against civilians. Child soldiers are widely used by the NRA as guerrillas, and also subsequently when NRA become the regular army.

April 15, 1983 : Sub-Saharian Africa- President Nimeiry declares all Sudan an Islamic state, terminating the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region

September 12, 1983 : Sub-Saharian Africa- The Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) is founded as a rebel group, to reestablish an autonomous Southern Sudan by fighting against the central government. While based in Southern Sudan, it identified itself as a movement for all oppressed Sudanese citizens, and is led by John Garang.


Northern Ireland

January 6, 1983: Northern Ireland - Two RUC officers are shot dead by the IRA while on patrol in Rostrevor, County Down

May 24, 1983: Northern Ireland - Andersonstown British Army barracks is devastated when the IRA detonated a massive van-bomb outside the front gate.

September 25, 1983: Northern Ireland - Maze Prison escape: thirtyeight Irish republican prisoners, armed with six handguns, hijack a prison meals lorry and smash their way out of HMP Maze, in the largest prison escape since World War II and in British history.
December 17, 1983: Northern Ireland -Harrods bombing – a Provisional IRA car bomb kill six and injured ninety outside Harrdos a major department store in London. The Provisonal IRA Army Council claim that it had not authorised the attack.


Offline Glanini

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Re: Cold War turned hot in the 80s
« Reply #19 on: January 06, 2013, 07:55:15 PM »
1984

News


January 14, 1984: News - The 1984 Summer Olympics to be held in Los Angeles, California are cancelled by Internationl Olympic Commitee, respecting the tradition that the games cannot be held during war unless those are suspended.

June-December, 1984: News– Major famine hits Ethiopia due to the extremely low rainfalls in the two previous years, in the meanwhile Ethiopian dictator Menghistu raised military expenses to 46% of GDP.

June 4, 1984: News– Bruce Springsteen’s “Born in the USA” album is released, though the song may look a patriotic hyms, especially during a war, it was actually a song about a jobless Vietnam War veteran.

July 12, 1984: News - In San Francisco, the Democratic National Convention has nominated Walter Mondale for U.S. President.

July 25, 1984 : News -  Salyut 7: Soviet Cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya becomes the first woman to perform a space walk.

November 6, 1984: News - United States presidential election, 1984: Ronald Reagan defeats Walter F. Mondale with 59% of the popular vote, the highest since Richard Nixon's 61% victory in 1972. Reagan carries 49 states in the electoral college; Mondale wins only his home state of Minnesota by a mere 3,761 vote margin and the District of Columbia.

November 25, 1984 : News - Band Aid, featuring U2, Duran Duran, Spandau Ballet, Wham, Phil Collins , Sting and Paul McCartney records the charity single "Do They Know It's Christmas?" to raise money to help the populations of West Germany, Italy, Austria and Denmark. It is released December 3, 1984


Central Front/ Europe

January –March, 1984: Central Front/Europe- Both sides went through a major re-armament process. United States production lines work around the clock and some production are also transferred to Europe. F16s are delivered to RAF, Luftwaffe and AMI, F18 to Royal Navy, Italian Navy and Aeronavale. On the Warsaw Pact side Sukhoi Su27 Flankers are delivered to frontline VVS units.

January, 1984: Central Front/Europe- A Red Cross reports details the condition of the areas occupied by Warsaw pact and Prisoners as well, while the situation in West Germany and Denmark is fair, the condition in Nortern Italy are dramatic as long as for Italian and Australian soldiers captured by Yugoslav Army that are sent in “Concentration Camps”.

February, 1984: Central Front/Europe- Soviet Army reserve units equipped with T72 tanks are moved from Central Russia to Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Hungary.

February 9, 1984: Central Front/Europe- After a long illness Soviet Leader Yuri Andropov dies, while sleeping, in his hospital room.

February 14, 1984: Central Front/Europe- Konstantin Chernenko is named General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The nomination is seen by western analysts as a temporary solution due to Chernenko’s age and health condition.

March, 1984: Central Front/Europe-Italian Air Force F16s and F20s get air superiority in Norht-East Italy against Yugoslav MiG23 and MiG21.

March 6, 1984: Central Front/Europe-Ronald Reagan provides to West Germany Government a report by CIA. The report describes how West Germany intelligence has been widely infiltrated by STASI agents. The CIA investigation started after the Humint failure in anticipating the attack on Western Europe.

March 6, 1984: Central Front/Europe-West German Bundesnachrichtendienst (Federal Intelligence Service) is shaken up by several arrests and is completely re-organized.

March 15-30, 1984: Central Front/Europe-As the weather starts to improve USAF F111, RAF and Luftwaffe Tornados starts pounding Warsaw Pact supply line in East Germany. Sukhoi Su27 tries to contrast them but suffer availability and maintenaince issues.

March 18, 1984: Central Front/Europe-Anti-Russian demonstration in Tiblisi are suppressed by KGB special units, but the demonstation will continue and spread in Armenia and in the Caucasus in the following weeks.

April 3, 1984: Central Front/Europe- In order to ease the pressure on the eastern front Italian and Australian units attack Albania and Yugoslavia (Montenegro) with a landing in the Petrovac area.

April 10, 1984: Central Front/Europe- Italian Marine Division “San Marco” crosses the Tagliamento River and push toward the Italian-Yugoslavian Border.

April 14, 1984: Central Front/Europe- 1st wave of Warsaw Pact attack on Austria from Czechoslovakian Army and Soviet 20th Guards Army. The attack is supported by the new attack helicopter of the Soviet Army Aviation, the Mil Mi28 Havoc.

April 20, 1984: Central Front/Europe- Vienna is occupied by Soviet forces. Thousand of Austrian citizens leave the country in Italy’s direction.

April 20, 1984: Central Front/Europe- Austrian Government, now in Innsbruck asks support to Switzerland that refuse the request.

April 30, 1984: Central Front/Europe-Soviet Troops are pulled out from the Taurus region in Turkey to suppress the revolt in the Caucusus.

May 5, 1984: Central Front/Europe- While the front is on a stalemate in North and Central Germany, Soviet forces occupy Salzburg and cross the Austria-Germany border in Munich direction.

May 10, 1984: Central Front/Europe- Italian Alpini enters in Austria and stops Soviet Invasion on the Kithzbuel-Lienz front.

May 15, 1984: Central Front/Europe- Soviet 20th Guards Army is 15 Kilometres south of Munich while 1st Guards Tank Army is 20 Kilometres East.

May 22, 1984: Central Front/Europe- Italian army enters Tirana and the population welcome them, the Albanian army faces huge defection and surrenders.

May 24, 1984 : Central Front/Europe- France II Army Corp,  Canadian Brigade and France I Army with huge losses stop the Soviets in the periphery of Munich after a very cruel fight building by building.

May 30, 1984 : Central Front/Europe-Australian and Italian Army units enter in Trieste.

June 6, 1984 : Central Front/Europe- Turkish Army crosses the Dardanelles Strait and the Bulgarian border after a serious of dramatic attacks from Northrop A9 Warthogs on Soviet and Bulgarian T72 tanks and BMPDs.

June 20, 1984 : Central Front/Europe- Italian and Australian Army units enters Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro. While Greek and New Zealand army units occupies Macedonia.

July, 1984 : Central Front/Europe- While French and Canadian forces are held in South Germany to defend Munich the Soviet 8th Guards Army moves west to Stuttgart.

July 5, 1984 : Central Front/Europe- Nurnberg is occupied after heavy fightings by Soviet 20th Guards Army on his way to Stuttgart.

July 15-30, 1984: Central Front/Europe- Major battle between US VII Corp and Soviet 8th Guards Army around Augusta in the direction of Stuttgart. Soviet Command and Control centers are bombed at night by a mysterious NATO bomber that Soviet radars are unabe to detect. In reality the US have deployed their stealth bomber F117 to the western Europe theatre.

July 15-30, 1984: Central Front/Europe- Turkish Army enters Plovdiv, in Southern Bulgaria, while the Greek Army is stopped on the Rodopi Mountains.

August, 1984 : Central Front/Europe- In the Julian Alps Croatian and Slovenian units of the Yugoslavian Army show sign of weaknesses and starts to retreat or surrender in front of advancing Italian and Australian Units without major signs of resistance.

August 15, 1984 : Central Front/Europe- On a meeting of Warsaw Pact leadership Constantin Chernenko states that Hamburg and Munich must be occupied before the winter. At the same meeting Yugoslavian, Bulgarian and Romanian leadership admit that the population and the army are not engaged as they would have hoped and they fear an uprising.

August 22-29, 1984 : Central Front/Europe- All reserve VVS units are deployed to Germany, major fightings with NATO air forces to gain air superiority. The technological advantage of NATO with the use of AWACs allows USAF, RAF, Luftwaffe and AdlA fighters to counter Soviet attacks.

September 1-30, 1984 : Central Front/Europe- Even without air superiority Warsaw Pact forces attack in mass in Munich and Hamburg direction but the T80s and T72 tanks units are piecemealed by USAF F111 and A9s. US Army M1A1 Abrahams and German Heer Leopard II pushes  Soviet back to the East German border.

September 15, 1984 : Central Front/Europe- The new generation of Command and Control Airplane, Boeing E4 Sentinel enters service with Royal Air Force.

October 5, 1984 : Central Front/Europe- Constantin Chernenko is hospitalized in the Central Clinical Hospital, a heavily guarded facility in west Moscow.

October 10, 1984: Central Front/Europe- In a NATO summit, United Kingdom Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher pushes for an offensive to free Denmark before winter.

October 12, 1984 : Central Front/Europe- A Warsaw Pact leadership summit is held in Moscow without Chernenko presence. It is decided to stop any major attack and hold the positions along the Inner German Border. Some VVS reserve units are to be re-deployed in Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia and Soviet Caucasus to face the possibility of a civil uprising after what has happened in Albania.

October 15, 1984: Central Front/Europe- 1st British Corp and 8th West Germany Mechanized Division attack GDR and Soviet units in North West Germany and free Lubeck.

October 16, 1984: Central Front/Europe- Swedish Army units starts an heliborne attack on Denmark in the Zealand, an area that was mainly occupied by GDR units.

October 18, 1984: Central Front/Europe- 1st British Corp of BAOR (British Army of Rhine) with Centurion tanks reaches Kiel and crosses the West Germany-Denmark border.

October 22, 1984: Central Front/Europe- 31. Luftburna bataljonen of Swedish Army enters Copenaghen, where GDR units have left the day before

October 25, 1984: Central Front/Europe- Soviet 2nd Guards Tank Army and the remaining Warsaw Pact Units leave Denmark’s Jutland through a massive Air and Sea operation with Air cover provided by Polish and VVS Su27 Flankers, anyway at least two hundred T80 Tanks are left there.

November 1, 1984: Central Front/Europe- All Denmark is free, after eighteen  months of Soviet occupation, the King and the government return to the country.

November 16, 1984: Central Front/Europe- West Germany Army units complete the advance in Schleswig-Holstein, Warsaw Pact units in Northern Germany are back to the April 1983 borders.

November 20-December 15, 1984 : Central Front/Europe- French and Canadian operations to push Warsaw Pact out of Bavaria are hampered by the weather, Czech and Soviet Units retreat 50 Kilometres from Munich, then the operations are stopped.


Middle East

January,  1984: Middle East- The Lebanese Army is defeated by Druze and Shi’ite Militias that take control over South and West Beirut.

February  7, 1984: Middle East-  President Reagan orders U.S. Marines "redeployed" from shore to U.S. Navy ships offshore in Lebanon. He describes the bombing of the Marine barracks that killed 241 Marines "Soviet sponsored."

February 8, 1984: Middle East-  In Lebanon, for nine hours U.S. warships shell pro-Syrian militia positions.

February 26, 1984: Middle East- United States Marines pull out of Beirut, Lebanon to be re-deployed in West Germany.

May-June, 1984 : Middle East-After United Nation withdrawal from Beirut the weak Amin Gemayel is forced to go to Damascus to consult with Assad.

August, 1984: Middle East-Gemayel announces its renounce to the American Sponsored April 28 Deal

September 13, 1984: Middle East- Labour Party Leader Shimon Peres presents the Twenty-first government of Israel and begins to serve as the prime minister of Israel.

September-December, 1984: Middle East- The Israeli trained South Lebanese Army of Major Haddad is able to stand the Druze attacks and maintain control over the enclave.


Central America

January-June, 1984: Central America- Nicaraguan and Salvadorean Government troops with Cuban support perform a major clean-up of the areas still occupied by Contras rebels, that flees in Honduras and Costa Rica.

February 2, 1984: Central America- After pressure from Nicaraguan government Costa Rica denies asylum to 3’000 soldiers of Eden Pastora Contras Army.

May 2, 1984: Central America- In El Salvador Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN) wins the general elctions against the Christian Democrat party.

June-September, 1984: Central America- In Guatemala the rebels trained in Mexico starts offensive actions in the north of the country.

September 4, 1984: Central America- The Sandinista Front with Daniel Ortega wins again the Nicaraguan general elections.

November 19, 1984: Central America- Through mediation of a Switzerland delegation the soldiers captured at Guantanamo Bay returns to the United States.


South America

January 25, 1984: South America- In Brazil during the celebrations for the anniversary of the city of Sao Paulo there is a strike with the participation of one hundred thousand people and several politicians and artists requesting free election to elect the president of the Republic and the end of the Military regime.

August 3, 1984: South America- In Argentina the first general strike is called against President Raul Alfonsin due to the economic stagnation of the country.


Southern Africa

January, 1984: Southern Africa- The USSR not only increases its aid to Angola but also take over the tactical and strategic leadership of FAPLA deploying advisors right down to the battalion level and begin planning a large-scale offensive against the UNITA-stronghold in southeastern Angola.

March 19, 1984: Southern Africa- In a joint statement  Cuba and Angola announce the principles on which a Cuban withdrawal would be negotiated: unilateral withdrawal of the SADF, implementation of Resolution 435 and cessation of support for UNITA and aggression against Angola. Cuban withdrawal would be a matter between Cuba and Angola.

March 25, 1984: Southern Africa- The South African and Mozambican governments sign the Nkomati Accord, in which South Africa agrees to stop sponsoring RENAMO if the Mozambican government expells exiled members of the African National Congress residing there. Mozambique fails to respect agreement and South African support for Renamo proceed.

April- August, 1984: Southern Africa-  Soviet command do not include the Cuban forces in Angola. Cuba's strategic opinions differ considerably from those of the Soviets and Angolans and Cuba strongly advised against an offensive in the southeast because it would create the opportunity for a significant South African invasion, which is what transpire. A FAPLA-offensive in February has already brought dismal results.

May-December, 1984: Southern Africa- In Mozambique Renamo, with support of Rhodesian Cheetahs stages several offensive in which government forces are defeated.

September, 1984 : Southern Africa- Angola present a plan to the United Nations calling for the retreat of all Cuban troops to positions north of the 13th parallel and then to the 16th parallel, again on the condition that South Africa pull out of Namibia and respect Resolution 435. Ten thousand Cuban troops around the capital and in Cabinda are to remain.


Afghanistan

January 30, 1984: Afghanistan- After more than two months of siege Soviet units finally relieve the DRA units at Urgun fort.

February, 1984: Afghanistan- Some Soviets, who disagreed with the policy of the massive attack planned for Panjseher VI give Massoud advance warning of the attack. Through this channel, and thanks to his agents in the DRA government Massoud has a precise idea of the Soviet plans, and he is able to counter them. To avoid civilian casualties, all 30,000 inhabitants of the Panjshir (from a population of 100,000 before the war) are evacuated to safe areas.

March, 1984: Afghanistan- Soviet units conduct a successful large scale sweep on the Salang Pass highway.

April 22-24, 1984: Afghanistan- Panjsher VII-  11,000 Soviet and 2,600 Afghan soldiers, participate in the offensive, supported by 200 airplanes and 190 helicopters. After a two-day bombardment of the region by Tu-16, Tu-22M and Su-24 bombers, they advance rapidly into the Panjshir. Several battalion strength forces are placed at key passes leading out of the Panjshir valley while at the same time large helicopter troop landings are made in tributary valleys connected to the Panjshir.

May, 1984: Afghanistan- Panjsher VII - By blocking the mujahideen's withdrawal routes and securing the high ground, the Soviets force them higher into the mountains then they have previously ventured and scatter their strength as they attempted to avoid being trapped by the helicopter landings. Once the strength of Massoud's forces are dealt such a deadly blow, rather than withdrawing from the valley as they have previously done they began setting up a system of forts and posts throughout the main valley while relinquishing control of the side valleys. These tactics prove more effective at rooting out insurgents and breaking up their fighting forces during the offensive but had limited long term success.

June, 1984: Afghanistan- Panjsher VII -The forts and outposts along the Panjshir Valley are unable to protect roads and convoys as well as they have hoped and these installations proves attractive targets for the mujahideen to harass. Much of the valley is occupied, but the Soviets paid a heavy price; many soldiers are killed by mines and in ambushes.

July-August, 1984: Afghanistan- Logar and Shomali valley are swept by DRA and Soviet Army, followed by renewed fightings near Herat.

July-September, 1984: Afghanistan- Panjsher VII - For the Soviets, the operation is partly successful - some of the infrastructure of the Mujahideen, created in the time of the truce in 1982-1983, are destroyed. Babrak Karmal completes a propaganda visit of the Panjshir, which for some time has become a safe zone. However, it quickly become apparent that most of Massoud's forces have escaped the onslaught, and are still able to carry out their harassment tactics. Eventually, in September, the Soviet-DRA forces once again evacuated the Panjshir valley, leaving occupying forces only in the lower Panjshir.

September, 1984: Afghanistan- Panjsher VIII - The 8th offensive is a follow-up to the 7th, involving mostly airborne forces.

October-December, 1984: Afghanistan-Soviet units push to seal the borders with Pakistan, that supplies weapons to the rebels.


Iran-Iraq

February 7-22, 1984: Iran-Iraq- On February 7 Saddam order aerial and missile attacks against eleven strategic Iranian cities that he has selected. The bombardment cease on 22 February. Iran soon retaliates against Iraqi urban centers, and these exchanges become known as the first "war of the cities". There would be five such exchanges throughout the course of the war.

February 14, 1984: Iran-Iraq-  Iran fight through Iraqi defenses to the oil-rich Majnoon Island. Iran now is ready to launch the final attack of the battle of the Marshes and if this one would be lost Iraq could easily regain all territory lost in the battle of the Marshes. Iran start their first strategic offensive now, Operation Kheibar. The IRIAF try their best to support the troops but because they lack spare parts they could only provide one hundred combat sorties per day on average, which is simply not enough. But on the other side the Iraqi air-force have their hands full on the southern front. Because of Iran's lack of aircraft, they use helicopters support for their troops. Eventually the Iranians sweep across the marshes and force the Iraqis out of the Majnoon islands which is a major disaster for Iraq.

February 15, 1984: Iran-Iraq- Iran launch Operation Dawn V, also known as Operation Dawn 5 or Operation Valfajr-5 (Persian). The Goal of the offensive is to split the Iraqi 3rd Army Corps and 4th Army Corps near Basra. It is fought between the Pasdaran, Basij and the Iraqi Army. In the early phases,a force of an estimated 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij, using shallow boats or on foot, move to within a few kilometers of the strategic Basra-Baghdad waterway. The Iranians lacked artillery, air support and armored protection, while the Iraqis are well equipped. The armies inflict 25,000 casualties on each other and the Iranians fail to achieve their objective. This operation is the biggest of the Dawn operations.

February 22-24, 1984: Iran-Iraq- Operation Dawn 6 is designed to exploit the Iranians' capture on the previous Operation with a breakthrough towards the highway. However, the operation meet an Iraqi defence which stand up to every attack, and the Iranians call off the attack after only two days.

March, 1984: Iran-Iraq- The Tanker War starts when Iraq attack Iranian tankers and the oil terminal at Kharg island.  Iran strike back by attacking tankers carrying Iraqi oil from Kuwait and then any tanker of the Persian Gulf states supporting Iraq. Both nations attack oil tankers and merchant ships, including those of neutral nations, in an effort to deprive the opponent of trade. Iraq declares that all ships going to or from Iranian ports in the northern zone of the Persian Gulf are subject to attack.

March 5, 1984: Iran-Iraq- Iran accuses Iraq of using chemical weapons; the United Nations condemns their use on March 30.

March 19, 1984: Iran-Iraq- The Iraqi defenses, under continuous strain since 15 February, seem close to breaking conclusively. The Iraqis successfully stabilize the front but not before the Iranians capture part of the Majnun Isla.

May 13, 1984: Iran-Iraq- Iran attacka a Kuwaiti tanker near Bahrain.

June 5, 1984: Iran-Iraq- The Iranian attacks against Saudi shipping led to Saudi F-16s shooting down an Iranian aircraft.

October,  1984: Iran-Iraq- Limited Iranian operation “Dawn 7” is repulsed by Iraq.


Far East/ Oceania

January, 1984: Far East- Aggressive Patrol flights over the China Sea are taken by VVS units, one Japanese P4A Sea Patrol Aircraft is shot down by a Sukhoi Su.15.

January, 1984: Far East- Conflict resumes between Vietnam and PRC in a series of actions known as the battles of Lao Shan and Zhenyn Shan. 

April 13, 1984: Far East- India-Pakistan-India launches Operation Meghdoot when the Kumaon Regiment of the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force goes into the glacier region. India is soon in control of the area, beating Pakistan to the Saltoro Ridge high ground by about a week. The two northern passes – Sia La and Bilafond La – are quickly secured by India.

April 28, 1984: Far East- PLA’s 40th Div of the 14th Corps attack Lao Mountain while the 49th Division of the 16th Corps heads for theZheyin mountain; the PAVN 313 division and batteries of the 168th Army Brigade conduct a fighting withdrawal.

May-June, 1984: Far East- PLA units have entered in Vietnamene territory for no more than five miles but are able to get the higher ground on all disputed border areas.

June-December, 1984: Far East- As the war progresses in Europe, Australia and New Zealand starts patrolling operation in the Pacific Ocean.

June 6, 1984: Far East- India-Pakistan- Indian troops storm the Golden Temple at Amritsar, the Sikhs' holiest shrine, killing an estimate 2,000 people.

August 21, 1984: Far East- Half a million people in Manila, Philippines demonstrate against the regime of Ferdinand Marcos.

October 31, 1984: Far East- India-Pakistan -Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is assassinated by her two Sikh security guards . Riots soon break out in New Delhi, and some 2,700 Sikhs are killed. Rajiv Gandhi becomes prime minister of India.

December 3, 1984: Far East-India: Bhopal disaster, eight thousand people dies due to a toxic gas leak from the chemical plant of US company Union Carbide.

December 31 1984: Far East- Brunei gains independence from the United Kingdom.


Mediterrean/ North Africa

January, 1984: Mediterrean / North Africa-a GUNT attack, supported by heavy Libyan armor, on the FANT outpost of Ziguey, a move mainly meant to persuade France and the African states to reopen negotiations. France react to this breach of the Red Line by launching the first significant air counter-attack, bringing into Chad more troops from Zaire and unilaterally raising the defensive line to the 16th parallel.

April 30, 1984: Mediterrean / North Africa-Gaddafi proposes a mutual withdrawal of both the French and Libyan forces in Chad. The French President François Mitterrand shows himself receptive to the offer.

September 17, 1984 : Mediterrean / North Africa- Mitterand, Mobutu and Gaddafi publicly announces that the mutual withdrawal will start on September 25, and be completed by November 10.

November 16, 1984: Mediterrean / North Africa- Mitterrand meet with Gaddafi on Crete, under the auspices of the Greek prime minister Papandreou. Despite Gaddafi's declaration that all Libyan forces have been withdrawn, the next day Mitterrand admits that this is not true.

December 22, 1984: Mediterrean / North Africa -  In Malta, Prime Minister Dom Mintoff resigns.


Sub-Saharian Africa

May 20-21 1984: Sub-Saharian Africa- No fewer than thirtytwo Ethiopian and Soviet aircraft were claimed destroyed at Asmara AB, including sixteenMiG-21s and MiG-23s, two An-26s, two (Soviet) Il-38s, four other aircraft, and six Mi-8 and Mi-24 helicopters. Due to such losses, the Junta in Addis Ababa is in 1985 forced to sell remaining intact F-5As and F-5Es to Iran, in order to pay back some of its debts to the USSR.

June-December 1984: Sub-Saharian Africa -  In Uganda UNLA begin to split along ethnic lines. Acholi soldiers complain that they are given too much frontline action and too few rewards for their services. Obote further alienates much of the Acholi-dominated officer corps by appointing his fellow ethnic Lango as Chief of Staff, and by giving more prominence to the Lango dominated Special Force Units.

September 1984: Sub-Saharian Africa -  In Sudan president Nimeiry announces the end of the state of emergency and dismantles the emergency courts but soon promulgated a new judiciary act, which continues many of the practices of the emergency courts. Despite Nimeiry's public assurances that the rights of non-Muslims will be respected, southerners and other non-Muslims remains deeply suspicious.

November 21 1984: Sub-Saharian Africa- Operation Moses‎‎, refers to the covert evacuation of Ethiopian Jews (known as the "Beta Israel" community or "Falashas") from Sudan during a famine in 1984. The operation, named after the biblical figure Moses, is a cooperative effort between the Israel Defense Forces, the Central Intelligence Agency, the United States embassy in Khartoum, mercenaries, and Sudanese state security forces ending January 5, 1985.

Northern Ireland

February 21, 1984 : Northern Ireland -  Two IRA volunteers and an SAS member are killed in a gun battle between an undercover British Army unit and the IRA at Dunloy, County Antrim

May 18, 1984 : Northern Ireland - Three British soldiers are killed by a PIRA landmine in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh. Two RUC officers are killed by a PIRA landmine near Camlough, County Armagh.

October 12, 1984 : Northern Ireland -  Brighton hotel bombing: a bomb, planted by PIRA, in the Grand Hotel kill five in a failed attempt to assassinate members of the British cabinet. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher narrowly escapes death.

December 6, 1984 : Northern Ireland -  Two members of the IRA are shot dead by undercover British soldiers in the grounds of Gransha Hospital, Derry.