Author Topic: Missile without a Man in it!  (Read 1146 times)

Offline apophenia

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Missile without a Man in it!
« on: January 03, 2018, 07:35:01 AM »
CB-104 'StarDart'

In the early 1960s, the Canadian government quietly accepted a NATO nuclear strike role for Royal Canadian Air Force fighter units based in Europe. [1] Initially, the role would be filled by CF-104 Starfighters adapted for the low-level delivery of US-supplied B28 'shapes'. [2] In the meantime, Canadair had begun work on Design Study CL-87A - a series of missile concepts based upon the license-built CL-90 Starfighter airframe. [3]

Canadair CL-190/CB-104X 'StarDart I'

The most straightforward Starfighter conversion -  the Canadair CL-190 'StarDart I' - was chosen. This would become the RCAF's CB-104X testbed - essentially a two-seat CF-104 given an enlarged nose-cone (complete with lower radome for a future terrain-following radar set) and remote-control equipment in the former forward cockpit area. The CL-190 conversion was quickly completed and, in late 1960, the CB-104X was delivered to the AETE at RCAF Station Cold Lake for trials.

As expected, the CB-104X testbed flew just as the standard CF-104 fighter did. The onboard test pilot controlled the aircraft for take-offs and landings, while a programmable autopilot was to control the CB-104X on its simulated missile flight. Problems emerged as soon as an automated take-off was attempted. On lift-off, the CB-104X began to pitch up and down with increasing violence. Unable to re-establish control, the AETE pilot ejected from the striken prototype which spun in near the far shore of Cold Lake.

Canadair CL-191/CB-104K 'StarDart II'

The unmanned prototype CL-191 'StarDart II' was already nearing completion at Montreal. Work was  immediately begun on re-programming the autopilot to avoid what had been dubbed 'Autopilot-Induced Oscillations' or AIOs. The first flight of what the RCAF called a CB-104K 'StarDart II' revealed that the AIOs had not been completely eliminated but were now more manageable. Even so, the prototype CL-191/CB-104K was lost to AIO on its third take-off from RCAF Cold Lake. There was some discussion of enlarging the tail surfaces but, more critically, the RCAF were losing faith in the concept of a conventional take-off for nuclear strike missiles.

Fortunately, Canadair had also been working on an alternative 'zero-length' launch concept.

(To be continued)

_______________________________________


[1] This applied only to squadrons equipped with the supersonic CF-104 Starfighter. The RCAF's remaining subsonic CF-100 Canuck all-weather interceptors were being withdrawn from Europe.

[2] RCAF Starfighters of 1 Air Division (1 AD) Europe took on the nuclear strike role in 1962. But, as it happened, the first US B28 bombs for the RCAF were not delivered until May 1964.

[3] CL-90 was Canadair's corporate designation for the CF-104 Starfighter. The internal CL-87 designation was 'recycled' from a cancelled 1960 logistic missile system project for the Canadian Army.
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Offline apophenia

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #1 on: January 03, 2018, 07:38:59 AM »
Canadair CL-199/CB-140 'Canarder'

It was hoped that the 1959 Canadair CL-83 (CARDE's Snow Goose/Black Brant I test vehicle) could form the basis for a ground-launch booster system for an unmanned CF-104 derivative. However, the Snow Goose/Black Brant booster would not be adequate to launch a fully-ladened CF-104 derivative. Take-off weight would need to be reduced. Canadair concluded that, with the Starfighter's retractable undercarriage now surplus, the overall airframe could be slimmed-down. The result was the Black Brant-boosted Canadair CL-190A.

Canadair CL-199A/CB-140A 'StarDart III' Concept

As revealed to RCAF brass at Montreal, the CL-199A mockup showed an underslung non-afterburning turbojet - either the CF-104's Orenda-built GE J79 or Orenda's own Iroquois engine. The fuselage was much slimmer than that of the CF-104. Standard CL-90/CF-104 wings and tailplane were retained. It was hoped that the now-oversized CL-90 tail would finally overcome the control difficulties which remained in the CL-191/CB-104K.

The 'zero-length' launch concept involved blasting the CL-199A into the air from a short rail using to power of twin solid-fuel booster rockets. These boosters straddled the turbojet pod and were to be jettisoned after flying speed was achieved. The concept was assigned a military designation - CB-140A - despite the reservations of RCAF planners and National Research Council advisers about the layout of the CL-199A.

[Top] Mockup of CL-199A/CB-140A 'StarDart III' concept as presented to RCAF brass. Inset, Canadair logo signature (above) and 'Canada Map' logo (below)

At issue were concerns over possible assymetrical ignition or rocket motor thrust and the difficulty of ensuring a 'clean' jettisoning of the spent booster package. Wind tunnel testing also revealed more drag than expected from the underslung nacelle. Worse, the large CL-90 tailplane seemed to be no better at correcting AIO than it had been on the beefier CB-104. A major redesign of this missile concept had to be undertaken.

Canadair CL-199B/CB-140M 'Canarder'

To address these concerns, Canadair turned to a related CL-87A study - what became the CL-199B. In place of the single large turbojet, paired Bristol-Siddeley Orpheus engines were adopted. [1] The twin booster rockets were replaced by a single Black Brant motor. The pylon separating the turbojets from the fuselage was also made more compact. With drag issues addressed, Stability and control in autopilot became paramount.

For the CL-199B, the Starfighter's T-tail was finally abandoned. The new vertical tail was a swept surface of much reduced area. The horizontal tail was replaced by a new canard surface. The latter was mounted on pivots in the lower portion of the same forward fuselage section as the F28 Mod.10 fuse equipment. Immediately aft of that fuselage bay was installed the W28 warhead.

Canadair now seemed to have a winner on its hands. DND issued a production order and the first CB-140M - as the military designated the CL-199B - was delivered in the summer of 1964. [2] It had been recognized that CB-140M operations would be quite different from those of Canadian strike fighter squadrons with 1 AD in Europe. In consequence, RCAF HQ decided to stand-up a dedicated squadron for the CB-140Ms.

As it happens, an Auxiliary squadron which had just been stood-down [3] had been a unit of note with No.6 Bomber Group in WW2. It was decided to reform this unit as No.424 (ST/N) Squadron to operate the CB-140M missiles. By then, the RCAF had named the CB-140M 'Canarder'. [4] No.424 also received an unofficial name - reviving its wartime 'Tiger Squadron' appellation. In January 1965, No.424 became part of No.3 Wing, deploying with its CB-140Ms to RCAF Station Zweibrucken on the French-German border. [5]

[Bottom] Operational CB-140M of No.424 Squadron, RCAF based "near Zweibrucken" Germany, Jan 1966. Note the new Canadian flag displayed on the vertical tail. Above that is 424's heraldic tiger badge. Inset, No.424 (ST/N) Sqn badge (as displayed on vertical fin).

(To be continued)

_______________________________________


[1] The CL-199B's paired Bristol-Siddeley Orpheus turbojets produced 10,000 lbf (dry) compared to the 11,905 lbf of the CL-199A's single Orenda J79. On the downside, each Orpheus (at 32.4 inches diameter) had almost as much frontal area as the J79's 38.4 inches diameter. This was offset by a great weight reduction - two Orpheus engines weighed 1,670 lb versus 3,850 lb for one J79.

[2] It is unclear why a CB-140B designation was not applied. One theory is that it was politically motivated. The CB-140A was a Canadair-funded study which DND chose not to reveal to Cabinet. It has also been suggested that the 'M' suffix refers to an attempt to introduce a new RCAF 'Missile' role designator. When that the failed to pass, the proposed 'CM-140' became the CB-140M.

[3] A utility transport unit, No.424 'City of Hamilton' (Auxiliary) Squadron was disbanded on 01 April 1964. The original 'Tiger Squadron' had been disbanded on 15 Oct 1945.

[4] In French, a canarder is a marksman shooting from a covered position. This seemed accurate for mobile missiles launched from hides. Besides, in the aftermath of the CB-104K fiasco, the name 'StarDart' had negative connotations for RCAF HQ.

[5] No.424 was technically a 'lodger' unit at Zweibrucken alongside No.430 Squadron Starfighters. In reality, No.424 was dispersed with individual launchers based further forward than the 'manned missiles' of No.430 (and No.421 at nearby RCAF Station Baden-Soellingen).
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Offline apophenia

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #2 on: January 03, 2018, 07:41:46 AM »
CB-140M 'Canarder' goes live ... and the Canadair's CL-199K

Shortly after being declared operational, orders were received to camouflage all CB-140Ms in Europe. The need for camouflaging the missiles in their hides had been anticipated but 'shiny' finishes were accepted for service to avoid delays in deliveries. By the end of 1966, the entire CB-140M fleet were painted in all-over Green camouflage. (This scheme would later be applied to all RCAF strike/attack squadron CF-104s as well.)

[Top] Operational No.424 Squadron CB-140M in the mid-1966 all-over Green camouflage scheme. Inset, No.424 (ST/N) Sqn badge (soon removed by order - along with fuselage-side script and serials).

Other than acceptance flights from RCAF Station Cold Lake, only one CB-140M 'Canarder' launch was even undertaken. This was a test launch by a No.424 (ST/N) missile from the Luftwaffe's Schleswig Air Base located near Sylt near the Danish border. [1] More relevantly, Schleswig AB was close to West Germany's North Sea coast.

Operational CB-140Ms were intended to be launched from disperse locations close to the French border. From there, the missiles would travel along pre-programmed flightpaths before detonating above Warsaw Pact targets (primarily Soviet air bases in Poland and the DDR). The 'Sylt Test' was to simulate such a flightpath ... but performed more safely over the waters of the North Sea. The test was to conclude with an unpowered splashdown in the shallower waters of the Dogger Bank (thereby increasing the chances of a successful recovery of the spent missile).

The test missile was to be accompanied by armed CF-104 fighters of No.430 'Silver Falcon' Squadron from RCAF Station Zweibrucken. [2] This proved a prudent precaution. As is often the case, things did not go as planned. Several minutes after launch, the CB-140M began to veer off course. Rather than easing to the West, the autopilot steered the missile eastward toward Jutland. The test was continued in the hope that the missile would correct its course. It did not and the CB-140M was downed by gunfire from the CF-104s as it crossed over into Danish airspace.

[Middle] CB-140M c/n 11018 as marked for its 20 May 1967 test flight. Dayglow recognition panels mark the nose, upper tail, and outer wings. The black-and-white markings on the nacelle have been applied to aid in air-to-air photography. Note that, by this stage, 'RCAF' scripts and serials have been painted over.

Canadair's final kick at the CB-140 'can' was the proposed CL-199C. This variant was prompted by the design of Canadair's CL-208 (or M752) missile launcher for the US DOD. [3] The added mobility of this new launcher suggested a shorter-ranged version of the CL-199 which could be forward-based (compared with the CB-140M). The CL-199C represented a completely new configuration while retaining the CL-199B airframe to the wings.

For the CL-199C, the underslung engine nacelle was abandoned in favour of a dorsal intake with an 'S'-curve duct feeding the new Pratt & Whitney Canada JT32 turbofan engine. Twin stabilizing strakes were to be added to the bottom 'corners' of the entirely new rear fuselage. Less obvious changes were a more sophisticated autopilot (connected to flight sensors on the pitot boom) and a dedicated terrain-following radar antenna under the forward fuselage. [4]

Unfortunately for Canadair, the newly-elected Canadian government had already decided to vacate the nuclear strike role. The newly-unified Canadian Armed Forces were to have no nuclear weaponry at all. No.424 Squadron was to be stood-down and its CB-140M fleet returned to Canada for re-programming as CB-140T naval target drones. Belatedly, Canadair proposed the construction of dedicated CL-199C target drones in place of undertaking the CB-140T conversions. Alas, neither CL-208 mobile launcher nor CL-199C proposal was taken up by Ottawa.

[Bottom] Canadair CL-199C nuclear strike missile as presented to DND, December 1967

Fin

___________________________


[1] The Luftwaffe's Schleswig AB had, until 1961, been the home of RAF Sylt.

[2] The No.430 CF-104s were welcomed by Schleswig AB's home unit, Aufklärungsgeschwader 51 which operated RF-104G Starfighters in the reconnaissance role.

[3] Canadair was contracted by the US DOD to build the CL-208 missile launcher (US designation M752) for the MGM-52 Lance tactical nuclear missile.

[4] Placement of the terrain-following radar set would require repositioning the fuse equipment. Canadair was confident that it could successfully miniaturized the US F28 Mod.10 fusing.
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Offline Tophe

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #3 on: January 03, 2018, 01:02:25 PM »
Very interesting!
That completes the F-104 family wonderfully! :-*

Offline buzzbomb

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #4 on: January 03, 2018, 03:11:37 PM »
Oh Yeah.

Just screaming for some Uncle Les action

Offline GTX_Admin

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #5 on: January 04, 2018, 02:28:15 AM »
 :smiley:
All hail the God of Frustration!!!

Offline Robomog

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #6 on: January 04, 2018, 05:42:04 AM »
 8)  :smiley:  :smiley: niiiice !

Offline Steve Blazo

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #7 on: January 04, 2018, 09:07:39 PM »
Those CB-140M's are sexy  :-* :-*. Very nice work.
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Offline finsrin

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #8 on: January 04, 2018, 09:14:05 PM »
Jimminy crimminy + what others said. :smiley:

Offline apophenia

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #9 on: January 05, 2018, 06:46:19 AM »
Thanks folks! Anything starting with a Starfighter is always fun and easy to do ... well in pixels anyway  ;)
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Offline GTX_Admin

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #10 on: January 06, 2018, 03:26:26 AM »
I'm sure West Germany had some of these...and wasn't there talk of a naval variant.... ;)
All hail the God of Frustration!!!

Offline elmayerle

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #11 on: January 07, 2018, 12:56:54 PM »
I'm sure West Germany had some of these...and wasn't there talk of a naval variant.... ;)
Perhaps a naval variant launched from a SSG or SSGN akin to the USN's Growler and Halibut classes respectively?  Either that or specifically designed surface ships that just "might" happen to resemble aircraft carriers.

Offline Alvis 3.1

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #12 on: January 07, 2018, 06:33:05 PM »
Wow, that's really well thought out. Love the profiles and backstory too!
I did something similar, mostly as I had a crappy F-104 without a canopy...
I like the way yours looks more.
http://www.aircraftresourcecenter.com/Gal10/9401-9500/gal9496-Hakapik_Petrie/00.shtm


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Offline AXOR

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #13 on: January 07, 2018, 06:54:31 PM »
Great ones!
Alex

Offline KiwiZac

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #14 on: January 08, 2018, 11:52:52 AM »
I quite like these ideas, lovely work!

Now, who's building them?
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Offline Old Wombat

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #15 on: January 08, 2018, 11:07:58 PM »
I quite like these ideas, lovely work!

Now, who's building them?

You!? ???
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Offline KiwiZac

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Re: Missile without a Man in it!
« Reply #16 on: January 16, 2018, 06:51:07 AM »
Not in my current financial position, but maybe one day...
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