Author Topic: Apophenia's Offerings  (Read 328374 times)

Offline GTX_Admin

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2145 on: April 30, 2019, 03:23:04 AM »
 :smiley:
All hail the God of Frustration!!!

Offline kitnut617

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2146 on: April 30, 2019, 03:47:32 AM »
And almost like a Saab Tunnen   Nice one Steven  :smiley: :smiley: :smiley:

Offline AXOR

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2147 on: April 30, 2019, 04:12:54 AM »
Well,,,,I like it !
Alex

Offline apophenia

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2148 on: May 03, 2019, 04:12:22 AM »
Cheers folks! Here's the next installment ...
______________________________________

While Hispano Aviación's 'DivPro' experimental division worked on the Avión de Caza Turborreactor (ACT) jet fighter project, Castoldi's office sketched out a lead-in trainer. The Entrenador Avanzado y Ataque Ligero (EAAC, Advanced Trainer and Light Attack Aircraft) represented an awareness that the performance of jet trainers would be potent enough to take on a secondary combat role. Indeed, the Ministerio del Aire came to see that role-combination as being essential in justifying the cost of yet another advanced aircraft project for the Ejército del Aire.

The first of the Castoldi team's concept appears to have been heavily influenced by the French Fouga CM.170 jet trainer then being designed. By comparison with the Fouga, the Spanish EAAC project represented a rather more compact aircraft. Elements of earlier Castoldi designs were evident in the rear fuselage shape and the empennage was basically that of the 'turbo-tail' fitted to the HA-1216-M1L 'Esmerejón' demonstrator. The wing - at least for the prototype EAAC - was to be taken directly from the Macchi fighter (albeit, modified to accommodate the main legs for a new, tricycle landing gear).

Bottom Hispano Aviación HA-P-3201 Entrenador Avanzado y Ataque Ligero (EAAC) concept (FdD No.4)

Upon reviewing the Castoldi team's EAAC design, the Ministerio del Aire expressed reservations. The first was the appropriateness of using a twin-engined trainer as lead-in to a single-engined jet fighter. Second was whether the airframe held sufficient fuel for safe operation in the training role - even with the planned wingtip fuel tanks for production models. The third reservation was with the landing gear design. A tricycle gear was clearly necessary for the jet engines but the EAAC's mid-positioned wings resulted in long main undercarriage legs. Despite that, the belly was low-slung and there were concerns about tail strike upon rotation - particularly with student pilots at the controls. Comment was also made about visibility from the rear cockpit.

In response to MdA concerns, Castoldi explained his team's design considerations. A twin-engined design had been adopted because the only small turbojet engine available to Spain was the Turbomeca Marboré which produced only 1,025 lbs of thrust. The mid-mounted wing was the best aerodynamic solution and also readily accommodated the twin jet intake trucks. A reduced airframe size and lower-set rear cockpit (in comparison with the French trainer) had been adopted to ensure a relatively high speed. That emphasis on speed related to the Ministry's requirement for a combat-capable aircraft. Reading between the lines of MdA concerns, however, it became apparent to Hispano Aviación reps that the MdA's true issue was with the unit cost of the EAAC. In effect, the MdA had requested more airplane than they could afford. Facing a potential stalemate, Castoldi proposed a return to the drawing board with a more realistic unit cost dictating the range of roles undertaken.

¡Volvamos a la mesa de dibujo! - On to the Entrenador Avanzado y Combate

For what was now re-named the Entrenador Avanzado y Combate (EAC, Advanced Trainer/Combat Aircraft) requirement, the first cost-savings could be found by halving the number of engines. That, in turn, dictated an even smaller airframe for the EAC. To avoid excessively long jet exhausts, it was decided to adopted the pod-and-boom arrangement from the ACT fighter. A single Marboré would be mounted under the boom. The obvious solution to shortening the main legs of the undercarriage was to adopt a lower-mounted wing. This would result in a lighter if somewhat 'draggier' airframe. The bifurcated engine intake ducts would be routed along the top to the wing to the face of the Marboré engine.

Crew accommodation was complicated by an Ejército del Aire insistance that the light attack role be retained. For the training role, instructor and student would be under a single, side-hinged canopy but, to save weight, no ejection seats were now omitted. By carrying 12.7 mm machine guns in underwing pods, the EAC-E (Entrenamiento) trainer would be made capable of armaments training. However, a second EAC variant would be required to perform the light attack role. The EAC-C (Combate) was a single-seater with two permanently-fitted 12.7 mm guns in the nose and weapons pylons under the wings. This two-variant EAC-E/EAC-C concept was accepted by the MdA and construction of a prototype begun.

The prototype was completed as an EAC-E two-seat trainer - dubbed HA-5201E by Hispano Aviación and the E.18 Vencejo (Swift) by the Ejército del Aire. Flight testing revealed a few deficiencies in the EAC airframe. A dorsal fin extension was added to the vertical tail to address the prototype's tendency to 'hunt' directionally. It was also decided to increase side area further by adding dihedral to the horizontal tail. [1] As originally intended, the wings were also modified to accommodate tip tanks for extra fuel. As these changes were incorporated into its airframe, the prototype EAC was also modified into an armed single-seater to prove the EAC-C configuration.

Top HA-5201E (E.18 Vencejo) Entrenador Avanzado y Combate EAC-E jet trainer variant

(To be continued ...)
________________________________________

[1] The decision to rework the tail proved fortuitous. The original horizontal stabilizers proved affected by resonance generated by the turbo's exhaust. Once removed, the original, 'flat' tailplane was found to be riven with small stress fractures.
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Offline Brian da Basher

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2149 on: May 03, 2019, 04:50:58 AM »
Wow that's very well done, apophenia!

I can only tip my hat to your boundless imagination and endless talent!
  8)
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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2150 on: May 03, 2019, 09:39:41 AM »
That's beautiful and the EAC is gorgeous (wonder if the TS.11 Iskra was inspired by similar requirements?) and both are beautifully rendered.

Offline apophenia

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2151 on: May 04, 2019, 05:59:44 AM »

Thanks folks! Evan: Yep, plenty of TS.11 Iskra DNA in the EACs ;)
_______________

Toothier Trainer - Hispano Aviación's HA-5101C Alcaudón

The Triana design office was justifiably proud of Hispano Aviación's domestic jet trainer family. Ejército del Aire trials had gauged the HA-5201E - their E.18 Vencejo 2-seat trainer - to be both under-powered and under-equipped. [1] Those were probably justified criticisms but, nevertheless, the Ministerio del Aire had already ordered the type into production. As previously mentioned, the prototype EAC-E had been modified to improve stability whilest simultaneously being converted into single-seat EAC-C ('C' for Combate) configuration.

To Hispano Aviación, the EAC-C was its HA-5101C model (with the suffix again for Combate). [2] For the EdA, this armed single-seater was the C.7 Alcaudón (Shrike). Despite that aircraft's modest performance, analysts in the Hispano Aviación sales office judged the HA-5101C to have some export potential. That assessment was based primarily on the aircraft's low unit. The sales focus would on Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. To that end, the prototype Alcaudón was borrowed back from the EdA for a sales junket through Central and South America. Hispano Aviación redubbed this aircraft as the Alcaudón-E (Alcaudón Export). [3]

Top HA-5101C Alcaudón-E in the markings of its Latin American sale tour

No export sales for the Alcaudón-E resulted from the prototype's Latin American tour. Still, displaying the aircraft raised Hispano Aviación's international profile while playing a small role in normalizing world relations with Franco's Spain. In any case, the HA-5201E/E.18 Vencejo and HA-5101C/C.7 Alcaudón were proving to be successes in domestic service. The EdA adjusted to the performance restrictions of their modest charges and reaped the benefits of the economical operation of these little aircraft. With this success under his belt, Dott. Ing. Mario Castoldi could at last retire. Castoldi returning to Italy to live out his days in comfort at Trezzano sul Naviglio.

'Turbo-Buchón' Redux - An Older Macchi Belatedly Enters the 'Jet Age'

Some years after Castoldi's retirement, the 'Turbo-Buchón' concept was revisited. The EdA had been finding it increasingly difficult to maintain the aging Merlin engines in their C-4M Super Buchón strike aircraft. A turboprop replacement was the obvious solution for re-engining the HA-1216-M1L fleet. But by then, Hispano Aviación had ceased to exist. In yet another of its forced re-organizations, the Instituto Nacional de Industria had subsumed HA into an enlarged CASA, SA. It was CASA which instituted the revived C-4T programme.

Ironically, this time, the MdA accepted a proposal to install the Rolls-Royce Dart as a Merlin replacement - just as Mario Castoldi had originally recommended years earlier. Since both Rolls-Royce engines used similar firewall engine-mounting points, replacing the Merlins with Darts providing no great mechanical challenges. A key issue with a HA-1216-M1L re-engining programme lay with the low-set tailplane being bathed in the hot exhaust plume. The MdA rejected an entirely new  raised tail on as old an airframe as the Super Buchón. Instead, a replacement horizontal tailplane was designed by CASA's Triana office. This heavier-built stabilizer and its elevator were metal-covered. The leading edge of both stabilizers and elevators were covered in stainless steel to resist the turboprop's exhaust heat.

A prototype conversion to 'C-1216-D2L' standard was undertaken using a Dart turboprop, engine mount, and cowling parts taken from a Vickers Viscount. [4] Engine installation went smoothly but flight trials were another matter. That longer nose caused no end of stabilty problems. This had been anticipated and an extra dorsal fin had been added to the prototype conversion. This dorsal fin proved woefully inadequate - it was increased in size twice and a small ventral fin was also added. Eventually, the tail fin was also slightly extended and a new, enlarged rudder applied. These tweaks worked but the C-4T Harpía (Harpy) would never regain the pleasant flight characteristics of the C-4M Super Buchón.

Mario Castoldi's response to the HA-1216-D2L/C-4T [4] transformation was not recorded. Doubtless, he would have regarded the Dart-powered C-4T conversions as abominations - the shapely lines of his original Macchi fighters were all but gone. But neither the MdA or EdA was interested in such aesthetic concerns. The 'new' CASA C-4Ts were filling a vital role and doing all that was expected of them. The rebuilt Harpías had lost none of their predecessor's speed or load-carrying capability. [5] With a comparatively simple to execute modification programme, effectiveness had been added to aircraft which had otherwise reached the practical end of their service lives. As modified, the C-4Ts lasted another decade in Spanish service.

BottomA C-4T Harpía at CASA's Triana facility for a rebuild. The replacement cowling demonstrates one of the CASA C-1216-D2L strike aircraft's weak points - a propensity for nosing over with hard braking. [6]

________________________________________

[1] The key EdA equipment complaint was the lack of an ejector seat. Since the in-service Sabre fighters were fitted with asiento eyectable, this was a valid complaint. However, blame for this absence lay with MdA budget-wrangling not with Hispano Aviación.

[2] With Hispano Aviación internal designations, the first numeral indicated a major design type - in this case, '5' for the EAC series. The next numeral indicated crew number - so, '1' for the single-seat EAC-C but '2' for the 2-seat EAC-E. The final two numerals were reserved for sub-types (but infrequently used).

[3] In some sources, the 'E' in Alcaudón-E is said to stand for España. Either way, with the EAC-C/EAC-E designation distinction, that 'E' suffix was bound to confuse potential customers for the export model

[4] The engine was taken from ex-KLM V.803 series Viscount PH-VID (c/n 175). That aircraft had sat 'in the weeds' at the EdA's Base Aérea de Torrejón since being wrecked there in July 1958. Mistaking BA Torrejón for nearby Barajas (MAD), the KLM crew had over-shot on landing. Upon leaving the runway, PH-VID had swiped its nose gear and wrinkling the forward fuselage. Fortunately for the Spanish C-4T programme, neither the engines nor propellers were damaged. The first four Harpía all received powerplants and cowling compenents from PH-VID.

[5] Adopting the wing tip fuel tanks from the EAC trainers actually increased the turboprop strike aircraft's usable range.

[6] This aircraft shows the scheme for Harpía conversions. Note that squadron code markings have been erased (once repairs are completed, this aircraft will go into the Harpía 'pool'.) Oddly, despite carrying a full under-wing practice weapons load, this aircraft has not yet had its gun sight refitted.
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Online elmayerle

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2152 on: May 04, 2019, 08:58:29 AM »
Very nice, both of them.  The Turbo-Buchonis at least as aesthetic as any of the "Turbo-Mustang" conversions using Darts.

Offline GTX_Admin

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2153 on: May 05, 2019, 04:09:44 AM »
One could easily see the C-4T being nicknamed the “Cyrano de Bergerac“

 :smiley:
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Online elmayerle

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2154 on: May 06, 2019, 05:54:27 AM »
One could easily see the C-4T being nicknamed the “Cyrano de Bergerac“

 :smiley:
*snicker* I like that idea.

Offline apophenia

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2155 on: May 07, 2019, 05:25:57 AM »
One could easily see the C-4T being nicknamed the “Cyrano de Bergerac“

 ;D  ... And now, the final installment in the Spanish Macchi story ...

____________________

Film Star - From 'Mula' to 'Mock Saetta'

When the CASA Cernícalo (Kestrel) intermediate trainer entered Ejército del Aire service, obsolescent Hispano Aviación HA-2221-S1L Alcotán trainers - aka EdA T-4S 'Mulas' - were withdrawn from use or became squadron hacks for the few remaining C-4T Harpía squadrons. The Alcotán's 'bumped' cowling gave it a very dated look - but also provided the strongest resemblance to the ancestoral Macchi fighters. This had not escaped the notice of aviation enthusiasts in Italy. Already, retired Alcotán airframes had contibuted components to Italian museum restorations of Macchi C.202 and C.205V fighters.

When plans began for a motion picture re-enacting the story of Italian aviators in Libya during WWII, the Alcotán offered a near-period appearance. Alas, the Spanish Government declined all offers of purchase for airworthy 'Mulas'. However, the Ministerio del Aire in cooperation with the Dirección General de Turismo [1] proposed an alternative scheme. Several T-4S 'Mulas' still with the EdA would be modified - by the Spanish aviation industry - to resemble the Italian's wartime Macchi C.200 Saetta fighters. An agreement was reached with the Italian film production company. That firm would fund the required visual modifications while the airframes remained the property of the Spanish state.

"I'm Ready for My Close-Up" - 'Mula' Modifications

In the final conversion contract, it was agreed that two T-4S would be modified into single-seaters. Both featured a new, raised and open cockpit. A 'hunched' forward fuselage and fake machine guns would complete the illusion of a Macchi C.200 fighter. A third 'Mula' remained a 2-seater and was intended as a camera ship. [2] For that purpose, multiple camera mounting points were incorporated. The rear position was screened to resemble a Saetta cockpit. The rear cockpit's stick-and-pedals had been removed but actors could be filmed 'at the controls'.

With a leased B-25 Mitchell operating as its lead camera plane, the movie was filmed over Andalusia and its Mediterranean coastline. The 'Mula' camera ship (EC-MCH) was the least convincing 'mock Saetta' but was suitable for formation shots taken from a distance. One of the single-seaters (EC-MCI) was also used as a fixed-camera ship. For 'in action' shots, the glass-fibre rear cockpit fairing was removed to expose the camera mounts. This provided over-the-shoulder shots of the pilot for the airplane being manoeuvred in the air as well as on take-off and landing. The overall effect of the 'mock Saettas' was very good. For the average film-goer, the modified T-4S was the spitting image of the wartime Macchi fighter.

The dramatic qualities of the film were less successful. Today, the movie 1940 - Africa Settentrionale is best-remembered for launching the film career of its love-interest co-star, Monica Vitti. Its flying stars faded from memory. They were largely forgotten until after the death of Francisco Franco. Then, two of the mouldering Macchis were recovered from the weeds at the EdA's Base Aérea de Vázquez Sagastizábal (near Seville) [3] for restoration. By the early 1980s, both former aerial film stars had become regular performers at Italian airshows.

________________________

[1] The Dirección General de Turismo answered to both the Ministerio de Cultura and the Ministerio de Información y Turismo ... but not the Dirección General de Cinematografía y Teatro. Despite its name, the latter Directorate for Cinematography and Theatre was actually Franco's agency for film and theatre censorship.

[2] Two other non-flying T-4S airframes were visually modified to act as 'ground-runners'. A non-running 'Mula' was also temporarily fitted with the two-row Fiat A.74 engine. Unfortunately, no surviving cowling from a HA-1201-F1L 'Burro' could be located (so this mockup was used to represent a desert airstrip maintenance scene).

[3] Now Base Aérea de Morón/Morón Air Base (OZP/LEMO), 56 km SW of Seville.
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Offline Brian da Basher

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2156 on: May 07, 2019, 07:41:02 AM »
That's some super smoke-ring camo and that 2-seater sure has a certain character to it.

Which is one of the things I enjoy about your work. You never fail somehow to impart character into everything you render.

Wonderful to see this on a Monday.
 8)
Brian da Basher

Offline apophenia

  • Patterns? What patterns?
Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2157 on: May 08, 2019, 03:56:33 AM »
Cheers Brian. And now for something completely different ...

In M.A.D's Alternative Australian Defence Force Orbat thread, he was asking about a variant of the Breguet Alizé to fill a shipboard AEW role for the RAN. tankmodeler suggested up-engining to the Dart RDa.10 (2,555 shp): http://beyondthesprues.com/Forum/index.php?topic=6278.msg145622#msg145622

There were two RW proposals for an AEW Alizé. The more practical one had a top-mounted radome. The alternative proposal (with much more whif appeal) had a belly radome necessitating a much taller undercarriage. The main gear is easy - it retracts into the wing pods (with no need for sonobuoys, the AEW version's pods have plenty of room for longer main legs when retracted).

The longer nose gear is trickier. Fortunately, tankmodeler's suggestion results in a longer nose. Problem solved ... at least in whif-world ;)

I liked tankmodeler's approach but tweaked it slightly. First, I kept the standard Alizé crew positions. Then, in place of the Dart RDa.10s, I've gone with Dart RDa.12 Mk 201s governed down from their usual 3,245 shp output. My reasoning was engine commonality (read: shared MRO) with Kiwi Andovers. Then, there's the potential of an RAAF AEW type based on the HS748.

For that RAAF AEW HS748, I'm thinking the same radar set as the AEW Alizé and this HS748 AEW would also be powered by the same governed-down Dart RDa.12s. The AEW variants could be converted from the RAAF's Series 2/229 C.2s (A10-595 & A10-596) with their Dart RDa.8s replaced and stripped of VIP seating. (Perhaps these AEW HS748s could remain with No.32 Sqn but act as lodger dets at whichever based they were required at?)

Name: 'Breguet Bactrian' is already spoken for ;)  Of course, alizé means 'trade wind'. Are there any appropriate Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander names for Aussie trade winds? (BTW, why didn't the RAAF use the name Andover for the HS748? After all, there is an historical village of Andover in Tasmania.)
« Last Edit: May 08, 2019, 03:58:10 AM by apophenia »
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Offline Old Wombat

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2158 on: May 08, 2019, 04:02:34 AM »
Good grief! Even a soft deck landing & that radome is ending up in the crew compartment! :o
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Offline GTX_Admin

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2159 on: May 08, 2019, 04:05:53 AM »
 :smiley:
All hail the God of Frustration!!!