Author Topic: Apophenia's Offerings  (Read 316313 times)

Offline apophenia

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2190 on: May 19, 2019, 06:49:21 AM »
Thanks folks.

Logan: Making this an Airbus project makes great sense - I'm imagining most sales being to A400M operators who also use the Hercules.

That said, I've rather gone off the overhead nacelles (although it makes perfect sense for Greg's flying boat). So, I've gone with underwing nacelles inspired by Marshall Aerospace's 'Snoopy' testbed.

http://beyondthesprues.com/Forum/index.php?topic=8546.msg155124#msg155124
"Could be the elves ... But it's probably the werewolf"

Offline apophenia

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2191 on: May 22, 2019, 05:21:07 AM »
Just for fun ... the inverted, upper intake version of the Europrop TP400
"Could be the elves ... But it's probably the werewolf"

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2192 on: May 23, 2019, 03:16:07 AM »
Hmmm...TP400 powered flying boat anyone?
All hail the God of Frustration!!!

Offline jcf

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2193 on: May 26, 2019, 02:13:36 AM »
Hmmm...TP400 powered flying boat anyone?

Seagull style.

"Evil our grandsires were, our fathers worse;
And we, till now unmatched in ill,
Must leave successors more corrupted still."
Horace, 65BC - 8BC. Marsh translation.

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2194 on: May 26, 2019, 02:58:49 AM »
 :smiley:
All hail the God of Frustration!!!

Offline kitnut617

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2195 on: May 26, 2019, 03:25:57 AM »
Hmmm...TP400 powered flying boat anyone?

Seagull style.



Hmm! think on that I will ---  :icon_meditation:

Offline apophenia

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2196 on: June 07, 2019, 07:20:41 AM »
First, some background blather ...

When Alexandr Yakovlev's twin-engined Izdelie 22 design first appeared, Iosif Stalin declared it a "miracle" and "a revolution in aviation". Very fast for its time, this small but powerful aircraft was not yet fully-equipped as a military type. [1] Fitted with defensive armament and bombs, the Yakovlev design became the BB-2 (for Blizhnii Bombardirovshchik or Short-range Bomber) or Yak-2. Inevitably, performance suffered once military equipment was installed. Despite having their fuel load reduced, in service BB-2s lost half of their speed advantage. Stability issues also manifested themselves. The role was then shifted to short-range reconnaissance.

Revised as the Yak-4, the Yakovlev fared little better in the recce role. Stability remained an issue and range was inadequate despite added fuel tanks in the wings. Iosif Stalin continued to favour Alexandr Yakovlev whose new single-engine fighter design - the I-26 (later Yak-1) - showed great promise. Politically, it easier to skirt the limitations of the BB-2 and Yak-4 than to challenge Stalin's previous assumptions. Problems inherent in the Izdelie 22 design were buried and production quietly wound down. In the meantime, aviation industry policy-makers attempted to shift an future blame onto those who could not easily defend themselves.

Due to Stalin's purges, most of the Soviet Union's senior aircraft designers were in prison. Most worked in design bureau TsKB-29 inside a NKVD jail. With several major aircraft projects already underway, [2] it was decided to assign responsibility for improving the Yak-4 airframe to two relatively junior designers - Iosif Grigorevich Neman (formerly cheif designer at the Kharkov Aviation Institute) and Dimitri Tomashevich (who had been on of Andrei Tupolev's assistant designers). These two men would be assigned Projects 110A and 110B which were general briefs to improve the performance of the Yak-4. However, those briefs soon became much more specific.

Officialdom was suddenly placing greater urgency on the development of armoured attack aircraft. The 'Project 110' designers were given revised instructions to quickly explore such possibilities for the Yak-4 airframe. Sergei Ilyushin was already designing his TsKB-55 (which would emerge as the Il-2) but there were delays in development. The brilliance of Ilyushin's design was incorporating armoured components as structural components. However, technical difficulties were encountered in ensuring that treated armour retained its shape to precise tolerances. While those difficulties were worked out, alternative 'Shturmoviki' would be needed. All 'Project 110' was to focus on ways of converting the Yak-4 from sow's ear recce aircraft into a silk purse armoured attacker. Neman and Tomashevich would do the work (in competition). If successful, Yakovlev would receive the credit. If a failure, Neman and/or Tomashevich would receive the blame.

(To be continued ...)
________________________

[1] Using the same Klimov M-103 engines, the Izdelie 22 was a full 100 km/h faster than the in-service Tupolev SB 'fast bomber'.

[2] The 'prisoner-workers' in "Tupolev's Jail" were allocated to separate design rooms. There, V. Petlyakov worked at 'Project 100', a high-altitude fighter (which formed the basis of the future Pe-2 bomber); of V. Myasishchev, worked at 'Project 100', a high-altitude bomber (later the DVB-102); while Tupolev himself worked at 'Project 100', a dive-bomber (which became the Tu-2 bomber).
"Could be the elves ... But it's probably the werewolf"

Offline apophenia

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2197 on: June 07, 2019, 07:21:26 AM »
Potential roles for developed Yak-4s - including likely success in the armoured attacker role - were limited by another policy shift. All available Klimov M-105 engines were now to be reserved for more promising aircraft types - like Yakovlev's I-26/Yak-1 fighter. The imprisoned design team working on 'Project 110' improvements to the Yakovlev Yak-4 design would need to make that airframe useful with less powerful engines. Iosif Nemen first attempted to revise his partially-completed study for a bomber trainer. That trainer was to be powered by twin 730 hp M-25 radials (familiar to Neman from his R-10) but it was quickly concluded that the old Shvetsov radial engines would provide insufficient power for any well-armoured derivative. A complete fresh approach was dictated.

In the first submission for an armoured attack aircraft came from Dimitri Tomashevich. Ironically, the 'Project 110B' team had followed a similar approach to that recently abandoned by Neman's 'Project 110A' group. The Tomashevich design basically adapted the 1,000 hp Shvetsov M-62 radial to the Yak-4 airframe. It was accepted wisdom (based upon Soviet combat experience in Spain) that air-cooled engines were less vulnerable to combat damage than liquid-cooled engines such as the Yak-4's M-105 V-12s. Accordingly, Tomashevich afforded no armour protection to the engines. Instead, only critical engine components - such as the oil filters - received any armour. In contrast, the entire crew compartment (now relocated to sit on the centre-of-gravity) was protected by armour panels bolted to the outside of the airframe.

Top 'Project 110B' Yak-4Sh (Shturmovik) aka Tomashevich OO-BSh (Otdel Opytnovo-Broniovanny Shturmovik or Experimental Design-Armoured Attack Aircraft)

While the Tomashevich proposal was being evaluated by the NII-VVS (the scientific and research arm of the VVS), the Neman team raced to complete their Yak-4-derived armoured attacker. When completed, this rival submission took its NII-VVS judges off guard. In place of a re-engined and armoured Yak-4, the 'Project 110A' team delivered a completely redesigned airframe based closely upon Ilyushin single-seat TsKB-57 attacker. In place of twin engines, a single large Mikulin M-35 inline was installed in the nose (Neman was not yet aware of Mikulin's M-38 development). The armoured cockpit cover from the TsKB-57 was adopted directly. A new forward fuselage was devised - created from welded steel-tubing like the Yak-4's rear fuselage structure. Flanking the cockpit section were bolted-on armoured ducts which protected the side-mounted coolant radiators as well as the pilot. Protection was completed by installing flat-plate armour panels to the rear and below the cockpit.

Bottom 'Project 110A' Yak-Sh aka Neman OO-BSh, single-engined armoured attacker

Where Tomashevich's submission had been conservative, Neman's proposal was audacious. However, neither scheme was accepted - the 'Project 110A' plan being too similar to the preferred Ilyushin attacker, the 'Project 110B' submission being too limited in performance. Instead, both design teams were invited to submit alternative plans. Tomashevich chose to ignore the brief and submitted a very radical plan for a very small, well-protected armoured attacker. Neman submitted a new concept sticking more closely to the original Yak-4 layout but using smaller, air-cooled engines. These were the lightweight Walter Gamma air-cooled, inverted V-12 recently arrived in the Soviet Union. [2]

(To be continued ...)
___________________________________

[1] Under this scheme, the Yak-4-based trainers would receive reconditioned M-25s. This was to allow viable combat types - such as older I-16 fighters - to be re-engined with the more powerful Shvetsov M-62 radial.

[2] Rights to the Walter engines formed part of the Soviet deal with Czechoslovakia to provide Tupolev SB bombers.
"Could be the elves ... But it's probably the werewolf"

Offline Brian da Basher

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2198 on: June 07, 2019, 07:27:39 AM »
Those are great apophenia and you captured that famous Soviet scheme most wonderfully.

I especially like the 'Project 110A' Yak-Sh at the bottom. There's something about a single-engine, twin-rudder attack bird that just does it for me.

Most excellent!

Brian da Basher

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2199 on: June 08, 2019, 03:12:13 AM »
Interesting. I have also considered a naval conversion for the 1/48 Yak-2 kit I have.
All hail the God of Frustration!!!

Offline apophenia

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2200 on: June 08, 2019, 04:35:08 AM »
Thanks folks. I'm interested to see that naval Yak-2! Shipboard or land-based?
--------------

The alternative proposal from Dimitri Tomashevich was accepted as a low-priority project which the 'Project 110B' team would further develop from their prison design office. But the second 'Project 110A' submission won Iosif Neman the big prize. At the end of 1940, Neman and key members of his team were released from the NKVD jail and their prison work within design bureau TsKB-29. By mid-January of 1941, they were back at Neman's starting point - the the Kharkov Aviation Institute (KhAI). But, now, Neman headed a small team nested under the new chief designer of KhAI - Pavel Sukhoi. There would be no love lost between the two designers.

Pavel Sukhoi had not only taken over Neman's former position, his Sukhoi BB-1 (Su-2) short-range bomber had also replaced Neman's R-10 on the KhAI production line. Alas, the Su-2 proved to be rather disappointing design. As Sukhoi worked to improve his BB-1, the last thing he needed was a potential replacement threat from within his own factory. Neman and team would be given a corner of KhAI to work in - as instructed by Moscow - but there would be no cooperation. Worse, Neman's progress - or lack thereof - would be reported directly to the NKVD. Although released from prison, Neman had not yet been 'rehabilitated' by the Soviet state. Until he was, Neman technically remained vulnerable as 'an enemy of the people'. The resulting fear needed to be turned into a motivation.

The first step for the former 'Project 110A' team was to demonstrate the viability of their proposal. To that end, a Yak-4 airframe was transferred from Tushino to Kharkov. This was the prototype Yak-4 KABB/MV, a failed ground-attack variant of the BB-22 family. As ordered, the Yak's M-105 engines and cowlings were immediately removed and shipped by rail back to GAZ-81 at Tushino where Yak-4 production continued. The airframe was then re-engined with sample, Czech-built Walter Gamma IV-12s received from the new motor plant at Zaporozhye (in southeastern Ukraine). At the same time, work began on redesigning the original Yak-4 fuselage to incorporate an armoured cockpit.

In what would emerge as the KhAI-14 (aka Neman BSh-1), a new single-seat cockpit was located low in the fuselage ahead on the forward wing spar. The forward fuselage 'skin' was almost entirely made up of armour panels bolted on to a revised steel-tube frame. Aside from armoured spinner back plates, the Gammas remained unprotected (in the then-current belief that air-cooled engines could absorb sufficient battle damage to be survivable). The prototype KhAI-14 flew well despite having half the engine power of the standard Yak-4. Preparation for production began at Kharkov (with many components being supplied by Zavod 454 in Kiev).

(To be continued ...)
"Could be the elves ... But it's probably the werewolf"

Offline GTX_Admin

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2201 on: June 08, 2019, 05:01:05 AM »
Plan is to be shipboard
All hail the God of Frustration!!!

Offline kitnut617

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2202 on: June 08, 2019, 06:05:40 AM »
That bottom profile has a bit of a Henschel Hs 129 look to it Steven ---  :smiley: Needs a dirty great big cannon sticking out the front  ;)

Online finsrin

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2203 on: June 08, 2019, 06:30:03 AM »
That bottom profile has a bit of a Henschel Hs 129 look to it Steven ---  :smiley: Needs a dirty great big cannon sticking out the front  ;)

Yes -- Henschel Hs 129 DNA is there.   All looking good.

Offline Brian da Basher

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2204 on: June 08, 2019, 07:45:53 AM »
I'm seeing a bit of Hs-129 pedigree in it myself.

Great stuff and the engine detail is very nicely rendered indeed.

Brian da Basher