Author Topic: Apophenia's Offerings  (Read 314819 times)

Offline Brian da Basher

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2130 on: April 22, 2019, 12:29:33 AM »


Now that top one is drop-dead sexy!
 :-*
You are an artiste` par excellence, apophenia!

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Offline apophenia

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2131 on: April 24, 2019, 04:09:14 AM »
'Merlino-Macchi' - The Ultimate Hispano Aviación Fighter

The best that could be said of the Hispano-Suiza-powered HA-1215-K1L was that it worked. The aircraft flew and handled well but the Ejército del Aire was growing impatient with the low serviceability-rate of their C-4K fleet. The EdA and Hispano Aviación faced a constant struggle sourcing parts for the troublesome HS-12Z-17 engines. Responsibility for those engines had been turned over to Fabrica de Motores de Aviación Elizalde (later ENMASA, SA) in Barcelona. However, Elizalde was already over-stretched. Meanwhile, Hispano Aviación concentrated on finding suitable replacements for the Buchón fleet's problem-prone Swiss Escher-Wyss propellers.

With problems mounting and officialdom losing patience with the Buchón, Hispano Aviación was happy to welcome Mario Castoldi back to Seville. [1] After reviewing the Buchón programme and its problems, Castoldi's recommendation was a renewed search for a new engine type. Castoldi was quite aware that Macchi had been investigation an updated C.205M powered by a Packard V-1650-7 Merlin. That powerplant was Castoldi's first choice for an HS-12Z replacement. The Americans were very cautious about exporting military engines to Franco's Spain. But, in late 1953, an alternative was found in advertised sales of surplus equipment in Britain.

By the end of 1953, ex-MoD surplus stocks of 1,600 hp Rolls-Royce Merlin 500-45 engine with their Rotol 4-bladed propellers were arriving by sea at the Puerto de Sevilla. Hispano Aviación had already begun preparing a prototype conversion to accept the Merlin powerplant. [2] Castoldi took the opportunity to thoroughly update the airframe. The wings were slightly extended and fitted with new, squared-off wing tips. The vertical tail received a small dorsal fin but the main changes were reserved for the fuselage. Most notable was the new, sliding 'bubble' canopy replacing the original hinged and heavily-frame unit.

The Merlin installation dramatically changed the Macchi's appearance - both in its cowling and an enlarged and refined belly radiator bath. Although Castoldi's cowling looked rather bulky, the powerful Merlin was actually smaller and lighter than either the DB 605A or the Hispano-Suiza engines. Castoldi mounted the Merlin high in the airframe allowing space beneath the engine block for two large oil coolers. Beneath those coolers was a long carburettor intake truck able to accommodate dust filters as needed.

Top Merlin-powered HA-1216-M1L prototype in Hispano Aviación's civil livery prior to delivery to the Ejército del Aire.

Hispano Aviación's 'Merlino' prototype impressed Ejército del Aire officials but the MdA advised against such radical modification of now-aging airframes. Instead, the EdA's Merlin-powered HA-1216-M1Ls would be more straightforward conversions of existing Buchón airframes. The first 'production conversion' to Merlin power was completed and flying before the middle of March 1954. Within a year, all EdA HA-1215-K1L airframes had been converted into Merlin-engined HA-1216-M1L Super Buchóns. [3]

In his original concept for an evolved, Merlin-powered Macchi , Mario Castoldi envisioned an armament of four 20 mm wing guns. Castoldi proposed reverse-engineering the wartime German MG151/20 cannon he was so familiar with. These guns were small and light enough for the Buchón wing to potentially accommodate a quartet of these auto-cannons. That proposal was unacceptable to the Ejército del Aire which preferred the heavier, harder-hitting Hispano-Suiza cannon. Hispano Aviación's board of directors also preferred HS.404-style cannons and insisted that Castoldi comply. As a result, fixed armament for the HA-1216-M1L would consist of a pair of 20 mm Hispano cannons replacing the existing Buchón's twin Breda-SAFAT machine guns.

The directors of Hispano Aviación would ultimately be disappointed. Board members had imagined a new armaments division for their firm producing HS.404 auto-cannons under license to their French counterpart. Instead, the Ministerio del Aire was able to source sufficient surplus British Hispano Mk.II guns from Belgium. [4] Later, underwing bomb racks were replaced by eight-packs of 80mm Pilatus air-to-ground rockets. In the C-4M Super Buchón, the Ejército del Aire finally had the light ground-attack aircraft and colonial fighter that it needed.

Bottom Hispano Aviación HA-1216-M1L (C-4M) Super Buchón with its powerplant exposed. This is one of the first five Merlin conversions - identified by their white recognition markings on cowling nose and wing leading edge. The EdA quickly abandoned these markings, the overall azur scheme being thought distinctive enough.

___________________________________

[1] After leaving Macchi at war's end, dott. ing. Castoldi developed two aircraft concepts as a freelance designer. However, it quickly became apparent to Castoldi that he was being locked out of Italian aircraft contracts due to his close connections to the past Fascist regime. Emigration was Castoldi's only real option if he wished to continue working as an aircraft designer.

[2] This airframe was something of a chimera, being composed of the uncompleted fuselage of a HA-1202-D1L, modified wings taken from the one-off HA-1204-H1L, and the tailplane of a HA-1215-K1L.

[3] Hispano Aviación had originally proposed the name 'Esmerejón' (Merlin) for the C-4M but this was rejected by the Ejército del Aire which preferred the continuity of Super Buchón.

[4] At this stage, Belgium had begun phasing out its Supermarine Spitfire fighters. In all likelihood, the Super Buchón's surplus guns came from scrapped Spitfires.
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Offline Brian da Basher

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2132 on: April 24, 2019, 04:11:57 AM »
The top one looks sleek as a greyhound! Love the bubble-top!

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2133 on: April 24, 2019, 04:30:16 AM »
 :smiley:
All hail the God of Frustration!!!

Offline Old Wombat

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2134 on: April 24, 2019, 08:06:36 AM »
Top image is just screaming for a sharks mouth! 8)
"This is the Captain. We have a little problem with our engine sequence, so we may experience some slight turbulence and, ah, explode."

Offline elmayerle

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2135 on: April 25, 2019, 02:12:53 AM »
Beautiful, in both versions.  I could so see such a derivative being built.

Offline apophenia

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2136 on: April 26, 2019, 05:47:36 AM »
Thanks folks. This one's a trainer, so a little more mundane ...

________________________________________________

While Buchón issues were being sorted, Mario Castoldi had turned his attention to other requirements. As director técnico of Hispano Aviación, Castoldi had an oversight responsibility for all design staff - including those of 'DivPro' (División de Proyectos Avanzados), HA's advanced projects experimental division. Jefa of 'DivPro' was the visiting designer, Prof. Willy Messerschmitt. [1] 'DivPro' staff had sketched out the HA-100 Triana intermediate trainer -  a fresh design to replace the EdA's Fokker D.XXI-based Hispano HS-42. [2] The HA-100 appears to have been a sound design but Castoldi did not think it represented the best use of Messerschmitt's talents while at Hispano Aviación.

In a move which did nothing to endear the Italian director técnico to his visiting German engineer, Prof. Messerschmitt was instructed to shelve the HA-100. Instead, 'DivPro' was to focus on the advanced CTR (Caza Turborreactor/Turbojet Fighter) project - an evolution of Messerschmitt's wartime Me.P.1101 prototype. Meanwhile, Castoldi proposed a simpler solution to EdA trainer requirement - adapt the Fiat-powered HA-1201-F1L 'Burro' into a lower-powered 2-seat trainer. In the earliest plans, this aircraft was to be powered by imported radial engines - the HS-42's Piaggio P.VII C.16 or possibly surplus British Armstrong-Siddeley Cheetahs if those could be found. [3]

While the Ejército del Aire saw the commonality benefits of a Macchi-based trainer, it was the Ministerio del Aire which cemented the deal. The MdA (through the Instituto Nacional de Industria) was then in the process of ensuring a second domestic source of aviation engines. That job would fall to SEAT, S.A. with an aero-engine shop established at its new Landaben factory at Pamplona in Navarre. [4] SEAT was begun with the purpose of license-building Fiat automobiles. So, it was a natural match to assign SEAT responsibility for deep maintenance and parts supply for Fiat aero-engines. [5] Through the MdA, SEAT proposed a new 7-cylinder engine to replace earlier radials in the 375-450 hp class. It was this SEAT A.77 [6] radial that was chose to power Castoldi's new HA-2221-S1L Alcotán (Hobby) trainer.

The SEAT A.77 was an obvious choice for the HA-2221-S1L. In effect, the A.77 was simply the 'front row' of Fiat's 14-cylinder A.74 engine. As such, the A.77 was a perfect match for the Macchi airframe. The Macchi airframe required few alterations other than adaptation for tandem seating. Forward of the firewall, the engine bay was extended forward (placing the propeller disc in the same plane as with the A-74-powered HA-1201-F1L). As an economy measure, the prototype HA-2221-S1L was fitted with simple, framed canopies for the crew. This, it was reasoned provided trainees with a similar experience to sitting in the cockpit of the operational Super Buchón attack-fighters.

Top Prototype Hispano Aviación HA-2201-F1L trainer with original, framed canopies. Neither those canopies nor the 360 rotating tailwheel were retained for the production model HA-2201.

The MdA ordered 19 additional HA-2221-S1L Alcotán trainers for the EdA. The most obvious difference with production-model HA-2221s was their frame-less, 'blown' canopies. Those canopies were identical to those of the inline-engined operational trainers but, in the HA-2221s, the actual cockpits were slightly more forward placed. [7] The result was a relatively lightweight intermediate trainer which shared most features in common with the Super Buchón colonial fighter. Despite being dubbed the 'Mula' (Mule) by its crews, the HA-2221-S1L was generally regarded well and served until the EdA introduced an all-jet training syllabus for fighter crews.

Along with the HA-1216-M1L (C-4M) Super Buchón, the HA-2201-F1L (T-4S) 'Mula' was one of the last of the direct Macchi descendants to see combat. In 1957, a pair of T-4S armaments trainers accompanied the Super Buchóns of 71a Escuadron, Grupo de Caza 7 to Sáhara Española. There to fight the rebelling Ejército de Liberación, 71a Escuadron found an unexpected combat role for the T-4S 'Mulas'. Concern over potential direct Morrocan interference in the struggle, the C-4Ms were used to escort EdA CASA 2.111 bombers over rebel territory. It was found, on night raids, that low-flying 'Mulas' could readily spot ground fire aimed at the 'Pedros'. The T-4S would then engage those ground targets with their twin Breda-SAFAT wing guns. [5] 71a Escuadron remained in Sáhara Española until the signing of the Treaty of Angra de Cintra on 1 April 1958 helped end the 'Ifni War'.

Bottom 'Mula obstinada' - HA-2201-F1L (EdA T-4S) armaments trainer, Sidi Ifni, Sáhara Española. Note period EdA camouflage, dust filter, and Super Buchón-style avionics antennae (unique to Ifni 'Mulas').

_____________________________

[1] Although both Ejército del Aire and the Ministerio del Aire were frustrated by non-delivery of promised Bf 109 fighters, officialdom assigned the blame for this failure to officials of the wartime Luftwaffe and RLM - not to Prof. Messerschmitt personally.

[2] In Spanish, an intermediate trainer would be an entrenador avanzado (or avión de entrenamiento intermedio). However, the EdA were requesting an advanced trainer (Entrenador Avanzado) - a type which, despite the terminology, filled the gap between an entrenador básico (or elemental) and an operational Entrenador combate (such as the 2-seat Macchis).

[3] Elizalde/ENMASA was, once again, pushing its Beta however, Castoldi rejected this Cyclone copy for having too great a diameter to suit his trainer concept.

[4] Like Elizalde, SEAT began as a car-maker (established by the INI in 1950 with its HQ at Martorell near Barcelona). SEAT began its automotive work with a licensed copy of the Fiat 1600 sedan.

[5] SEAT's aero-engine support programme began with the 2-row Fiat A.74 14-cylinder radial for the HA-1201-F1L 'Burro'.

[6] Despite its close connection with Fiat Motori, the designation suggests that SEAT, S.A. was unaware of Fiat's own A.77 engine project of 1945.

[7] The forward-placed cockpit was dubbed 'Caja de Fuegos' ('Firebox') by trainees. But this pies en el fuego reputation was undeserved. As trainee pilots would later discover, their feet got no warmer in the 'Mula' cockpit than they did in the Super Buchón.
« Last Edit: April 26, 2019, 05:52:47 AM by apophenia »
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Offline GTX_Admin

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2137 on: April 26, 2019, 05:52:35 AM »
 :smiley:
All hail the God of Frustration!!!

Offline Brian da Basher

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2138 on: April 26, 2019, 06:37:56 AM »
Oh now those are nice and you totally nailed those famous Spanish schemes!

Trainers are an area ripe for "the treatment" and overall not as widely modeled/rendered.

That blue is most easy on the eyes!

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Offline elmayerle

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2139 on: April 26, 2019, 09:06:30 AM »
Gorgeous whiffs, there.  I wonder, have we reached the end of this story or do you have further surprises?  In any case, those trainers are gorgeous and would make interesting builds.

Offline apophenia

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2140 on: April 28, 2019, 05:39:24 AM »
Thanks folks!

Evan: A have a few more ideas ... but I think I'm already scraping the bottom of the barrel.

________________________________________

'Turbo-Buchón' - Hispano Aviación into the 'Jet Age'?

The Merlin-powered HA-1216-M1L was considered a complete success as a light attack aircraft and 'colonial fighter'. Initially, the Ejército del Aire thought that its C-4M fleet could be more heavily armed but, with the adoption of 80 mm Pilatus rockets, the Super Buchón was in its element. Still, there was no denying that Mario Castoldi's original Macchi formula was becoming increasingly dated. Hispano Aviación was pursuing more advanced designs through its experimental division - 'DivPro' (División de los Proyectos) headed by Prof. Willy Messerschmitt. In the meantime, schemes to 'tweak' the existing Super Buchóns continued to be explored at Castoldi's Triana design office.

When the Ministerio del Aire began emphasizing the advantages of turbine engines, options for 'Turbo-Buchón' were examined. Triana recommended adapting the Rolls-Royce Dart turboprop engine to the existing Super Buchón airframe (the Dart's firewall engine-mount points being identical to those of the HA-1216-M1L's Merlin). An immediate concern for any 'Turbo-Buchón' design would be the original Macchi airframes low-set horizontal tailplane. Before final engine selection had even occurred, design work had begun on an entirely new, higher-set tailplane for the future 'Turbo-Buchón'.

Top Hispano Aviación's HA-1216-M1L 'Esmerejón' demonstrator restored to flight-worthiness and fitted with its new 'turbo-tail'.

Although Castoldi's Dart recommendation represented a simple solution to bringing the Macchi airframe into the 'Jet Age', the MdA was motivated to support the development of domestic Spanish turbine engines. Accordingly, Hispano Aviación was instructed to focus on turbine proposals from Elizalde and SEAT. The former had assigned low priority to propeller-turbine engines so HA began working closely with SEAT-Pamplona. The initial SEAT design - aimed at trainers and utility transports - would have insufficient power to replace the Super Buchón's 1,600 hp Merlin piston engines. SEAT's proposed solution was to pair two such turboshaft engines to drive a single propeller through a combining gearbox.

HA's Triana design office was stunned by the apparent complexity of SEAT's 'solution'. However, the Ejército del Aire's technical office saw an opportunity. They encouraged SEAT engineers to incorporate a 'hollow' propeller shaft into their design which could accommodate a cañon motor armament. Initially, this was to be a third 20 mm Hispano gun. Then, this was eclipsed by a locally-designed 30 mm auto-cannon. [1] This combination, the MdA decided would be the re-engining solution for the 'Turbo-Buchón' while simultaneously addressing Ejército del Aire concerns about weight of fire. The die was cast.

The SEAT TP-1500 (Turbopropulsor-1500) was first constructed as an engineering mockup (with non-functioning engines). The first fully functioning TP-1500 was to be trialled in the nose of a formerly-trimotored CASA C-202 transport (stripped-down to save weight). Meanwhile, the 'dummy' TP-1500 was given a trial installation in the nose of C-4M on loan from the Ejército del Aire for the purpose. That installation went surprisingly smoothly. However, this was the only aspect of the TP-1500 programme which did proceed smoothly.

Bottom EdA HA-1216-M1L 'loaner' converted into 'C-4T' with mockup SEAT TP-1500 turbine instalation. Note the mockup-within-a-mockup - the 'dummy' Oviedo ALFA-30 (modelo 59) cañon motor. [2]

The base SEAT TP-750 turboprop had ongoing problems of flame-outs and surging on the bench. The SEAT turbine never did fly and the entire 'Turbo-Buchón' concept quickly faded away. The failure of this project had nothing to do with Hispano Aviación's efforts - indeed, it could be argued that the MdA should have followed Castoldi's recommendation to adopt the proven Rolls-Royce Dart turboprop. One outcome of this programme was the rationalization of the Spanish aero-engine industry. Reversing its earlier diversity goals, the State's Instituto Nacional de Industria combined the two main military engine suppliers into one firm. By the beginning of 1959, SEAT Aviación at Landaben was closed. Henceforth, by INI order, all future aero-engine work by SEAT and Elizalde would fall under a combined and re-organized ENMASA, SA in Barcelona.

______________________________

[1] For this project, the Fabrica de Armas de Oviedo essentially scaled-up the wartime German MG151/20 cannon. Unfortunately, the ammunition was also scaled-up from the wartime original - putting the Spanish 30 x 144 mm rounds at a disadvantage compared to the NATO standard 30 x 173 mm rounds. All completed Oviedo ALFA-30 cannons were redirected to the Armada for employment as shipboard air defence guns on larger patrol boats.

[2] Also note a marking anomoly - this aircraft features the period-correct reduced-scale tail flash and fuselage roundels but retains the out-dated 'full-sized' underwing roundels.
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Offline Brian da Basher

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2141 on: April 28, 2019, 08:29:03 AM »
The top one has a bit of a Swedish look to it and I can just see it with those three crown markings.

Your talent is an inspiration, apophenia.

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Offline GTX_Admin

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2142 on: April 29, 2019, 02:56:47 AM »
 :smiley:

Would love to see a RR Dart version as well - maybe a whiff within a whiff?
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Offline elmayerle

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2143 on: April 29, 2019, 12:17:00 PM »
Some very interesting proposals there and I agree with GTX, I'd love to see the RR Dart version.

Offline apophenia

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Re: Apophenia's Offerings
« Reply #2144 on: April 30, 2019, 02:44:27 AM »
Thanks folks, I'll give some thought to a alt-alt Dart installation. Meanwhile, a brief digression in the Spanish Macchi story ...

As previously mentioned, Hispano Aviación's experimental division - 'DivPro' (División de los Proyectos) - was under the leadership of Prof. Willy Messerschmitt. After their HA-100 Triana intermediate trainer project was terminated, 'DivPro' focused on development of a Spanish jet fighter aircraft. Prof. Messerschmitt had been hired by Hispano Aviación primarily because he offered construction drawings of the wartime Me.P.1101 jet fighter prototype. Further development of the Me.P.1101 was to form the basis for the Ejército del Aire's advanced Avión de Caza Turborreactor (ACT) jet fighter project.

At Hispano Aviación, the ACT jet fighter project was referred to as the HA P-1101E ('E' for España). The project created to immediate challenges. First, the Me.P.1101 had not been designed by the Professor - the wartime design work had been done by Messerschmitt AG engineer, Woldemar Voigt (who had been captured by the Americans). Willy Messerschmitt's knowledge of the prototype was thus restricted to its drawings. Second, the Me.P.1101's BMW 018 turbojet engine was, obviously, no longer available. For Spain, the Me.P.1101 could be no more than a starting point for a postwar jet fighter.

At an early stage, it was decided to build a Spanish prototype with ground-adjustable wing sweep (as on the wartime original). Once, the optimum wing sweep had been found, the fixed wing sweep for production fighters could be established. For Ejército del Aire service, the first task was redesigning the airframe to take the longer-barrelled Spanish 30 mm cannon armament. To solve the jet engine conundrum, Prof. Messerschmitt used his German expat connections to establish contact with BMW turbojet design leader, Hermann Östrich who was continuing his work in French-occupied Baveria. [1] There, Östrich and his team continued development work on BMW's earlier, smaller-diameter 109-003 turbojet as the ATAR engine. 'DivPro' adopted what would become the Snecma Atar turbojet as the new base engine for their fighter design.

The actual ACT design process went through multiple phases (Fases de Diseño). The wartime Me.P.1101 was considered a baseline (Primeras Fase or Fase de Diseño no.1). For FdD no.2, an eventual French turbojet had been assumed to be of identical dimensions to the BMW 018. FdD no.3 addressed fixed-gun armament - FdD no.3A retaining the baseline twin 30 mm MK108 cannons (with their attendant availability issues), and FdD no.3B mounting six of the available 12.7 mm Breda-SAFAT machine guns. After some detail redesign work, FdD no.6 adjusted for accurate size information on the French Atar turbojet. [2] A further redesign followed with FdD no.8 which had a lengthened nose (and engine intake trucking) primarily to accommodate the required long-barrelled Spanish 30 mm cannon. [3]

Top Hispano Aviación HA P-1101E (FdD no.11) jet fighter project armed with Spanish ALFA-30 guns and fitted with an ejection seat. The French Atar 101A engine is shown for scale.

As design work progressed, a number of issues and concerns came to light. A major concern was the complexity and placement of the jet fighter's undercarriage. In all earlier-phase HA P-1101E designs, the landing gear from the wartime Me.P.1101 was retained. This involved a nose gear which, as it retracted, had to rotate 90° to be compact enough to fit beneath the engine intake trunking. The aft-retracting main undercarriage tucked up into wells above the hot jet pipe - hardly an ideal location for low-pressure rubber tires. By FdD no.18, a solution to the undercarriage issues had been found but this involved a major redesign for the jet fighter's airframe.

The 'DivPro' solution was to replace the original design's 'straight through' jet trunking in favour of twin side fuselage intakes. Foreign experienced with side intakes had convinced Prof. Messerschmitt that this was a comparatively risk-free approach with newer turbojet engines. At a stroke, the need to rotate the retracting nose wheel was eliminated. The bulging of the fuselage sides to housing the new intakes also provide potential bays for the retracted main landing gear. According the main undercarriage was revised to retract forward (and away from the intense heat of the jet pipe). [4]

At this stage, the Ministerio del Aire informed Hispano Aviación that its jet fighter requirement was undergoing a major change. Rather than the fast-climbing, cannon-armed air superiority fighter originally requested, the new requirement was for a longer-ranged interceptor armed with air-to-air missiles. Eliminating the fixed guns posed no real difficulty but providing more range proved a challenge for 'DivPro' staff. In the end, the cockpit was moved forward to provide more space for fuel (it was also lowered to improve aerodynamics). Streamlined wing pylons were envisioned for missiles (or other air-to-air armaments) but the MdA could provide no details on armament since the Spanish missiles had yet to be designed.

Bottom Hispano Aviación HA P-1101E (FdD no.23) jet fighter project in imagined operational colours. Note the side intakes, revised undercarriage, and relocated cockpit.

When France refused export to Spain of the Atar 101 engine, Hispano Aviación was left without powerplant options for its jet fighter. The HA P-1101E project was dead. Without a domestic Avión de Caza Turborreactor programme, the Ministerio del Aire turned to potential import fighters to satify the Ejército del Aire's ACT requirement. Efforts to take over development of the Argentinian IAe 33 Pulqui II failed as did requests for the purchase of Swedish Saab 29s or French M.D.450 Ouragans. Rejection also ultimately accompanied Madrid's diplomatic overtures to an ideological enemy - the Soviet Union. [5] The ACT conundrum was finally satisfied when the US released F-86F Sabre jets for Spain in 1955.

______________________________________

[1] Östrich had been in charge of the design team developing the BMW 003 turbojet. To escape Allied bombing, BMW 018 work had been moved to Stassfurt, near Magdeburg, in February 1945. At war's end, Östrich had accepted a French offer to continue his turbojet work at Lindau. By October 1945, Östrich's Atelier Technique Aéronautique Rickenbach (ATAR) group had completed engineering work on the revised Rickenbach 101 (R.101, later redesignated ATAR 101).

[2] Atar development actually simplified engine installation. Whereas the BMW 018 had a diameter of 1.25 m (49.3 inches), the diameter of the French Atar was reduced to only 890 mm (35 inches) - later to grow to an even 1.00 m (39 inches).

[3] Messerschmitt's wartime Me.P.1101 had been designed for the very short-barrelled Rheinmetall MK108 cannon. The Spanish Mauser MG151/20-derived Oviedo ALFA-30 guns had considerably longer barrels.

[4] It was found that the previous wheel bays provided space for additional engine accessories and equipment (lower) and a fifth fuel bag tank (upper).

[5] The proposed Soviet deal was jet fighters for naval bases. The Red Fleet was interested in docking/re-supply rights at Cartagena on Spain's Mediterranean coast and/or Ferrol in Galicia on the Atlantic coast. In exchange, the Soviets would release jet fighters to the EdA (Spain hoping for MiG-15s but Moscow offering Lavochkin La-15s (which were due to be withdrawn from Soviet service in 1953).
The hammer of the gods will drive our ships to new land ...